Heavy Proteinuria. Edema. Hyperproteinemia. andHyperlipidemia characterize the nephrotic syndrome(NS).CLASSIFICATIONThe syndrome can be divided into congenital, primary(idiopathic), and secondary types.1. Minimal-change disease. (75%)2. Mesangio- proliferative. (<5%)3. Focal-segmental lesion. (10%)4. Membranous nephropathy. (<5%)5. Membrano proliferative glomerulonephritis.Type I, II and III (10%).ETIOLOGY90% of the children have some form of the idiopathicnephrotic syndrome. Minimal-change disease is foundin approximately 75%. Where as in 10% of thechildren with Nephrosis, the nephrotic syndrome islargely mediated by some form of glomerulonephritis,membranous and Membrano-proliferative are mostcommon. It is widely accepted that minimal changenephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most commoncause of nephritis in children. Recent studies show thatthe incidence of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis(FSGS) in children with idiopathic nephroticsyndrome has increased recently.29


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