AVAILABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AT PRIMARY HEALTHCARE FACILITIES IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Authors

  • Rizwana Hussain Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
  • Mahmoud Radwan Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (IC-TUMS), Tehran-Iran
  • Sadia Habib Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad-Pakistan

Abstract

Background: Availability of essential medicines is one of the most important universal human right. For one third of the world, unavailability of essential medicines remains a major problem. The objective of this study is to authenticate the availability of essential medicines along with the storage conditions at primary healthcare level, district central warehouses and private pharmacies in the rural areas. Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Data was collected retrospectively and prospectively, by World Health Organization (WHO) tool, Operational Package for Assessing, Monitoring and Evaluating Country Pharmaceutical Situations. Results: On an average availability of essential medicines in primary healthcare, private pharmacies, and warehouses were 90.32±1.78 (SD), 82.83±2.75 (SD) and 96±0.83 (SD), respectively. Stock out duration of essential medicines in primary healthcare and district central warehouses were 11.56±4.08 (SD) and 10.24±5.95 (SD) respectively. Expired medicines were not found. Storage conditions of medicines in store room in PHC, private pharmacies and district central warehouses were 75.76±1.53(SD), 73.33±2.16 (SD), and 82.0±2.48 (SD) respectively. Storage conditions of dispensing room in PHC and private pharmacies were 66.06±2.52 (SD) and 39.65±4.25 (SD) respectively. Conclusion: Availability of essential medicines was below WHO standards. Medicines were found to be stocked out. No expired medicine was found on shelves. Storage conditions of medicines were poor.

Author Biography

Rizwana Hussain, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Phd candidateDept. of Health Policy and ManagementSchool of Public HealthTehran University of Medical Science, Iran

References

Zarocostas J. Better access to medicines could save 10 million lives a year, says UN expert. BMJ 2007;335(7621):635.

Abiye Z, Tesfaye A, Hawaze S. Barriers to access: availability and affordability of essential drugs in a retail outlet of a public health center in south western Ethiopia. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3(10):101–5.

Javed TA, Amin S. Health sector reforms programme in Punjab: a primary healthcare initiative. Clin Med (Lond) 2007;7(1):19–22.

WHO. Equitable access to essential medicines: a framework for collective action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.

Sterckx S. Patents and access to drugs in developing countries: an ethical analysis. Dev World Bioeth 2004;4(1):58–75.

Government of Pakistan. Economic Survey of Pakistan 2014-15. Islamabad. 2015.

Pakistan Bureau of statistics. household integrated economic survey (hies) 2011-12. islamabad: government of pakistan, statistics division. 2013.

WHO. Health systems financing; The path to universal coverage Switzerland: 2010.

Bank W. Towards a health sector strategy; Health, Nutrition and Population Unit, South Asia Region, 1997. Washington DC: 1997.

Khan A. Policy-making in Pakistan's population programme. Health Policy Plann 1996;11(1):30–51.

Government of Pakistan. Utilization of public health facilities in Pakistan. National Health Management Information System. 2000.

Qazi MS, Ali M, Kuroiwa C. The health management information system of Pakistan under devolution: health managers' perceptions. Biosci Trends 2008;2(2):75–80.

Zaidi S, Bigdeli M, Aleem N, Rashidian A. Access to Essential Medicines in Pakistan: Policy and Health Systems Research Concerns. PLoS One 2013;8(5):e63515.

Azhar S, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MIM, Ahmad M, Masood I, Shafie AA. The role of pharmacists in developing countries: the current scenario in Pakistan. Hum Resour Health 2009;7:54.

Jamal H. Quantifying Sub-national Human Development Indices from Household Survey Data. Soc Policy Dev Cent Res Rep 2016;2016:96.

WHO. Technical discussion on Medicine prices and access to medicines in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. World Health Organization, 2007.

WHO. Measuring medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components. 2008.

Saksena P, Xu K, Durairaj V. The drivers of catastrophic expenditure: outpatient services, hospitalization or medicines. Geneva: World health report, 2010.

Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ôunpuu S, Anand S. Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases. Part I: General Considerations, the Epidemiologic Transition, Risk Factors, and Impact of Urbanization. Circulation 2001;104(22):2746–53.

Nishtar S. Health Indicators of Pakistan. Heart File in collaboration with Statistics Division of Pakistan, Pakistan's Health Policy Forum, World Health Organization, Ministry of Health, Government of Pakistan 2007.

HAI Wa. Uganda Pharmaceutical Sector Baseline Survey Uganda: WHO and HAI, 2002.

Punjab TRFaGo. Essential Package of Health Services for Primary Health Care in Punjab Technical Component. Islamabad: 2012.

WHO. Primary health care: report of the International Conference on primary health care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978. World Health Organization; 1978.

Provincial Quality Control Board P. Provincial Quality Control Board, P&S Healthcare Department, Goverment of Punjab. 2012 (175th Meeting PQCB). Government of Pakistan PHD. Punjab Health Sector Plan 2018.

Government of Punjab. Punjab Health Sector Plan 2018 Building a Healthier Punjab. 2015. [Internet]. [cited 2018 March]. Available from: https://pbit.punjab.gov.pk/system/files/Punjab%20Health%20Sector%20Plan%202018.pdf

Hamad AB, Ahmed ZS. Role of Monitoring and Supervision to Improve Health Service Delivery in Basic Health Units of Punjab, Pakistan. Inf Knowl Manag 2016;6(1)66–72.

Lima GB, Nunes LCC, Barros JACd. Uso de medicamentos armazenados em domicílio em uma população atendida pelo Programa Saúde da Família. Ciên Saúde Colet 2010;15(Suppl 3):3517–22.

Costa EA, Araújo PS, Pereira MT, Souto AC, Souza GS, Guerra AA, et al. Technical issues and conservation conditions of medicines in the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Rev Saúde Pública 2017;51(Suppl 2):12s.

Downloads

Published

2021-11-08