• Mevo Khan Zardari
  • Mir Muhammad Sahto
  • Syed Tousif Ahmed
  • AH Akbar Rahu
  • Ahmed Badar


A total of 95 mate subjects were included during the course of present study. 35 COPD without cardiac failure and30 COPD with cardiac failure. Expiratory spirometry was performed on S- model vitalograph spirometer. Vitalcapacity (VC), forced vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume one second ( F E V I expiratory ratio (FEV/FVC%)and forced expiratory flow 25-75% ( F E F 25-75%) were performed on all subjects. The ventilatory functions of themale adult control of relevant age subgroups were found to decline with advancing age. Pulmonary function tests inCOPD without and with cardiac failure were significantly decreased (p<0.001) when compared with controls. In theCOPD without and with cardiac failure, the difference was statistically insignificant, h was even slightly higher inCOPD with cardiac failure subjects except FEF 25-75%. These tests are therefore valuable for early diagnosis inCOPD subjects but in COPD with cardiac failure their correlation with severity of lung disease is not perfect.


Ross JC, Internal medicine, 1st ed., Brown and

company Boston. 1983; p.445-47.

Bennett JC and Plum P. Cecil text book of

medicine 20th ed. W.B. Saunders Company

Philadelphia. 1996; p.38.

Kumar P and Clark M. A text book for medical

students and doctors. 3rd ed. Bailliere tindal,

London 1994; p.659.

Fiel SB. The national medical series for

independent study of medicine, 2nd ed. A wiley

medical publication New York 1986; p.69.

Petty, T.L. (1989) Office spirometry. App

Cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, 3:169-76.

Gandavia B. and Hugh-Jones P (1957).

Terminology for measurements of ventilatory

capacity. Thorax. 12: 290-93.

Mckerrow CB, Mcdermott M and Gilson JC

(I960). A spirometer for measuring the forced

expiratory volume with a simple calibrating

device. Lancet. 1:149-51.

Conchrane GM. Prieto F, Hickey B. Benator SR

and Clark TJH (1994). Early diagnosis of airways

obstruction. Thorax. 29: 389-93.

Vandenberg E, Clement J and Woestijne KPV

(1973). Cause and prognosis of patients with

advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Am.J. Med. 55: 736-46.

Kory RC. Callahan R. Boren HG and Syner

MJC (1961). The veteran’s administration army

cooperative study of pulmonary- function. I.

Clinical spirometry- in normal men. Am. J. Med.

: 243-58.

Kelle CA, Neil E and Joels N. Samson wrights’

applied physiology, 13th ed. Oxford medical

publication, New York, 1982; p 157.

Campbell EJM, Dickinson CJ and Slater JDH.

Clinical physiology, 13th ed. ELBS and

Blackwell scientific publication, Oxford and

Edinburgh, 1970: p. 124.

Williams DE, Miller RD and Taylor WF (1978).

Pulmonary- function studies in healthy Pakistani

adults. Thorax, 33: 243- 49.

Shepherd RJ and Turner ME (1959). On the

probability of correct diagnosis by pulmonary

function tests. Thorax, 14 300-04.

Hogg JC. Macklem PT and Thurlbeck WM

(1968). Site and nature of airway obstruction in

chronic obstructive lung disease. N. Eng. J. Med.

: 1355-60.

Keller CA, Shepard JW Jr. Chun DS. Vasquez P

and Dolen GF (1986). Pulmonary hypertension in

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest, 90:



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>