• Iqbal Alum
  • Alam Khan
  • Shagufta Shagufta
  • Aziz -un- Nisa
  • Nazakat Begum


Menopause is defined as permanent cessation ofmenstruation and the mean age of menopause inUnited States is 51 years, with a normal distributioncurve and 95% confidence limits between the ages of45 and 55 years. At this age only a few primordialfollicles are left and hence the production of estrogensby ovary is decreased. These small amounts ofestrogens cannot cause surge of LH and FSH essentialfor ovulation. When ovulation does not occur, corpusluteuin is not formed and there is no secretion ofestrogens and progesterone. Due to this weak, negativefeedback effect of estrogen and progesteroneproduction of LH and FSH increases and so regularcycles disappear. It is found that steroid hormones(estrogen and progesterone) are decreased andgonadotrophins (LH and FSH) are increased aftermenopause. These findings are important from thediagnostic point of view. These hormonal changesbegin about 5 years before the actual menopause.These changes lead to the symptoms like hot flushes,vaginal atrophy, depression, anxiety, memory loss andnervousness. Estrogen deficiency also results in anincreased risk of cardiovascular disease and anaccelerated loss of bone mass, causing an increasedrisk of fractures. The leading cause of death in womenis cardiovascular disease. Estrogen replacementtherapy relieves these symptoms and allows thepatients to sleep better.


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