• Haris Hakeem Section of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
  • Memoona Nasir Department of Medicine and Allied Services, Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Center, Lahore
  • Muhammad Farhan Khan Division of Neurology, Shifa International Hospital, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad
  • Nabeel Muzaffar Syed Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE
  • Haris Majid Rajput Department of Neurology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad
  • Arsalan Ahmad Division of Neurology, Shifa International Hospital, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad
  • Muhammad Athar Javed Department of Neurology, King Edwards Medical University, Lahore
  • Danish Ejaz Bhatti Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE


Neurology still remains one of the most underserved specialties of medicine in Pakistan with roughly one neurologist per million people. Movement disorders (MD) are neurological problems that interfere with patient’s motor abilities and diagnosis is typically clinical. In this review, we describe a practical approach to common MD emergencies that may be encountered by a non-neurologist physician, emphasizing on formulating a working diagnosis and their immediate management. Movement disorder emergencies can be classified based on MD phenomenology and we will provide a brief overview of dystonia including acute dystonic reaction, PAID syndrome and dystonic storm; chorea, myoclonus including serotonin syndrome and startle disease; and rigidity including neuroleptic malignant syndrome and malignant hyperthermia.Keywords: Movement Disorders; Emergency; Neurology; Dystonia; Tardive; Serotonin Syndrome; Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome


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