Comparison of The Effects of Broiler and Domestic Chicken Meat on Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in Rats


  • Hamad Gul Khan National university of medical sciences Rawalpindi
  • Amir Rashid National university of medical sciences Rawalpindi
  • Saleem Ahmed Khan National university of medical sciences Rawalpindi
  • Muhammad Javad Yousaf NUMS university
  • Faiza Aman Animal Science Department, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad
  • Muhammad Shoaib Animal Science Department, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad


Background: The aim of study is to evaluate and compare the effects of broiler chicken fed with commercially available feed and chicken fed with organic diet on serum testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone levels in Sprague Dawley rats. It was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Multi-Disciplinary Laboratory of Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad from November 2017 to April 2019. Methods: Ninety male early weaned Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assorted into three groups (n=30). Group I control rats were nourished on standard pelleted diet. Group-II rats were nourished with organic chicken meat along with their standard pelleted diet. Group-III rats were nourished with broiler chicken meat along with their standard pelleted diet. Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone levels were estimated through ELISA. Weight gain and the % growth rate were also estimated. Mean±SD values of all variables were calculated. One-way ANOVA was applied to determine the significance among groups followed by Tuckey’s HSD post hoc test. p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: The current study demonstrated significant increase in serum Testosterone levels (p=0.002) and a significant decrease in serum Luteinizing Hormone levels (p=0.003) between control and broiler meat fed rats (Group-III). The study also showed significant increase in weight gain and % growth rate (p<0.001) in both experimental groups as compared to control group. Conclusion: Based on the findings of our study we propose that broiler chicken meat consumption could be the potential cause of hormonal imbalance and out of proportion weight gain and growth in experimental rats.Keywords: Broiler Chicken; Organic Chicken; Serum Testosterone; Luteinizing Hormone; Sprague Dawley Rats; Growth Rate

Author Biographies

Hamad Gul Khan, National university of medical sciences Rawalpindi

Demonstrator, Biochemistry Deptt

Amir Rashid, National university of medical sciences Rawalpindi

Associate Professor & HeadDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine,Army Medical College, Rawalpindi

Saleem Ahmed Khan, National university of medical sciences Rawalpindi

Department of Pathology, Principal & Dean, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi

Muhammad Javad Yousaf, NUMS university

 Assistant Professor Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi                

Faiza Aman, Animal Science Department, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad

M. Phil Trainee Reproductive PhysiologyAnimal Science Department, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad

Muhammad Shoaib, Animal Science Department, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad

M. Phil Trainee Reproductive PhysiologyAnimal Science Department, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad


Wahyono N, Utami M, editors. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia. J Phys Conf Ser 2018; 933:012125.

Henchion M, Hayes M, Mullen AM, Fenelon M, Tiwari B. Future protein supply and demand: strategies and factors influencing a sustainable equilibrium. Foods 2017;6(7): E53.

Agricultural output - Meat consumption - OECD Data [Internet]. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). [cited 2018 Oct 26]. Available from:

Sohaib M, Jamil F. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2017;37(3):329–41.

Hussain J, Rabbani I, Aslam S, Ahmad HA. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan. Worlds Poult Sci J 2015;71(4):689–700.

Kearney J. Food consumption trends and drivers. Philosophical transactions of the royal society B. Biol Sci 2010;365(1554):2793–807.

Wang Y, Lehane C, Ghebremeskel K, Crawford MA. Modern organic and broiler chickens sold for human consumption provide more energy from fat than protein. Public Health Nutr 2010;13(3):400–8.

Fouad A, El-Senousey H. Nutritional factors affecting abdominal fat deposition in poultry: a review. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014;27(7):1057–68.

Cano P, Jiménez-Ortega V, Larrad Á, Reyes Toso CF, Cardinali DP, Esquifino AI. Effect of a high-fat diet on 24-h pattern of circulating levels of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, corticosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and glucose, and pineal melatonin content, in rats. Endocrine 2008;33(2):118–25.

Bliatka D, Lymperi S, Mastorakos G, Goulis DG. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking? Andrology 2017;5(3):404–7.

Javed R, Ghafoor F, Mehboob A, Aasim M. Association of diet with hirsutism in females of reproductive age. Pak J Med Res 2012;51(4):139–42.

Uranga RM, Keller JN. Diet and age interactions with regards to cholesterol regulation and brain pathogenesis. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res 2010;219683.

Lone KP. Natural sex steroids and their xenobiotic analogs in animal production: growth, carcass quality, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, mode of action, residues, methods, and epidemiology. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1997;37(2):93–209.

Davey JC, Bodwell JE, Gosse JA, Hamilton JW. Arsenic as an endocrine disruptor: effects of arsenic on estrogen receptor–mediated gene expression in vivo and in cell culture. Toxicol Sci 2007;98(1):75–86.

Anway MD, Cupp AS, Uzumcu M, Skinner MK. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science 2005;308(5727):1466–9.

Lorenzen A, Hendel JG, Conn KL, Bittman S, Kwabiah AB, Lazarovitz G, et al. Survey of hormone activities in municipal biosolids and animal manures. Environ Toxicol 2004;19(3):216–25.

Gonzalez-Moran MG. Immunohistochemical localization of progesterone receptor isoforms and estrogen receptor alpha in the chicken oviduct magnum during development. Acta Histochem 2015;117(8):681–7.

Niknafs S, Roura E. Nutrient sensing, taste and feed intake in avian species. Nutr Res Rev 2018;31(2):256–66.

Psifidi A, Banos G, Matika O, Desta TT, Bettridge J, Hume DA, et al. Genome-wide association studies of immune, disease and production traits in indigenous chicken ecotypes. Genet Sel Evol 2016;48(1):74.

Ahmad S. The effect of commercially available chicken feed and chicken meat on body weight and serum estrogen levels in female albino Wistar rats. Int J Livest Prod 2017;8(2):24–7.

Sengupta P. The Laboratory Rat: Relating Its Age With Human's. Int J Prev Med 2013;4(6):624–30.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (US). Committee on Care, Use of Laboratory Animals, National Institutes of Health (US). Division of Research Resources. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. National Academies; 1985.

Khan M, Jabeen N, Khan T, Hussain HMJ, Ali A, Khan R, et al. The evolutionarily conserved genes: Tex37, Ccdc73, Prss55 and Nxt2 are dispensable for fertility in mice. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):4975.

De Smet S, Vossen E. Meat: The balance between nutrition and health. A review. Meat Sci 2016; 120:145–56.

Ahmad S, Ahmed I, Haider S, Batool Z, Ahmed SB. Daily consumption of commercial chicken feed and meat lead to alterations in serum cholesterol and steroidal sex hormones in female rats. Pak J Pharm Sci 2017;30(1 Suppl):257–61.

Leder BZ, Rohrer JL, Rubin SD, Gallo J, Longcope C. Effects of aromatase inhibition in elderly men with low or borderline-low serum testosterone levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89(3):1174–80.

Mancini A, Leo F, Di Segni C, Raimondo S. Relationship Between Hormonal Milieu and Oxidative Stress in Childhood Obesity: A Physiopathological Basis for Antioxidant Treatment and Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk. Anti Obes Drug Discov Dev 2017; 3:149.

Barrett ES, Hoeger KM, Sathyanarayana S, Abbott DH, Redmon JB, Nguyen RH, et al. Anogenital distance in newborn daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome indicates fetal testosterone exposure. J Dev Orig Health Dis 2018;9(3):307–14.

Sellers ZP, Bujko K, Schneider G, Kucia M, Ratajczak MZ. Novel evidence that pituitary sex hormones regulate migration, adhesion, and proliferation of embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinoma cells. Oncol Rep 2018;39(2):851–9.

Zhou P, Tan YQ, Zhang L, Zhou YM, Gao F, Zhou GH. Effects of dietary supplementation with the combination of zeolite and attapulgite on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, secretion of digestive enzymes and intestinal health in broiler chickens. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014;27(9):1311–8.

Ahmad S, Omm-e-Hany AI, Ahmed SA, Alamgir A, Neelam A. Potential Effect of Chicken Boneless Meat on the Body Weight and Serum Cholesterol Levels of the Female Albino Wister Rats: in Direct Human Prospective Studies. Am Eurasian J Agric Enviorn Sci 2016; 16:466–9.

Lymperi S, Giwercman A. Endocrine disruptors and testicular function. Metabolism 2018; 86:79–90.

Albert O, Nardelli TC, Lalancette C, Hales BF, Robaire B. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to new generation green plasticizers on adult male rats: A comparative study with di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Toxicol Sci 2018;164(1):129–41.

Colby HD. Regulation of hepatic and steroid metabolism by androgens and estrogens. Adv Sex Horm Res 1980:27–71.

DeKlerk DP, Coffey DS, Ewing LL, McDermott IR, Reiner WG, Robinson CH, et al. Comparison of spontaneous and experimentally induced canine prostatic hyperplasia. J Clin Invest 1979;64(3):842–9.

Zhang H, Shi J, Liu X, Zhan X, Dang J, Bo T. Occurrence of free estrogens, conjugated estrogens, and bisphenol A in fresh livestock excreta and their removal by composting in North China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014;21(16):9939–47.

Ahmad S, Rehman R, Haider S, Batool Z, Ahmed F, Ahmed SB, et al. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of additives present in broiler chicken feed and meat and their implications for human health. J Pak Med Assoc 2018;68(6):876–81.

Filazi A, Yurdakok-Dikmen B, Kuzukiran O, Sireli UT. Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Meat and Products. Poult Sci 2017; 15:171.

Chu CY, Tang LY, Li L, Shum AS, Fung KP, Wang CC. Adverse reproductive effects of maternal low‐dose melamine exposure during pregnancy in rats. Environ Toxicol 2017;32(1):131–8.

Chuffa LG, Lupi-Junior LA, Costa AB, Amorim JP, Seiva FR. The role of sex hormones and steroid receptors on female reproductive cancers. Steroids 2017; 118:93–108.




Most read articles by the same author(s)