HOW CASE BASED LEARNING PROMOTES DEEP LEARNING IN PRE-CLINICAL YEARS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS?
AbstractBackground: The study was conducted at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi to explore the factors in Case Based Learning (CBL) session responsible for promoting deep learning approach in medical students. Methods. A mix method research methodology with explanatory sequential design was adopted. In the quantitative part, the data was collected through a survey of second year medical students in which learning approaches were assessed using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Students were scored separately for the three approaches: surface, strategic and deep approach. In qualitative part; semi structured interviews were conducted with deep learners to explore the factors which help in promoting deep learning through Case-Based Leaning (CBL) guided inquiry approach. Interview data was transcribed, coded and thematic analysis was carried out. All quality assurance procedures of qualitative research such as credibility, trustworthiness, transferability, dependability and confirmability were ensured during the research. Results: Deep learners were identified by analyzing the ASSIST-inventory results. Qualitative analysis has revealed six main themes: active participation of the students in the CBL session, relevance of the case with their clinical practice, complexity of the case for future practice, intrinsic motivation, guided inquiry approach with tutor’s involvement, role playing and changes in learning approaches of the students were found responsible for inculcating deep learning approach in medical students in their pre-clinical years. Conclusion: The study concluded that by ensuring the factors that promote “deep learning approach” in medical students through Case Based Learning; it can be used as an effective strategy in teaching the content of basic science subjects during the pre-clinical years of medical students.Keywords: Deep learning; Case-Based Learning; Participation; Motivation
Hashim R, Azam N, Shafi M, Majeed S, Ali S. Perceptions of undergraduate medical students regarding case based learning and tutorial format. J Pak Med Assoc 2015;65(10):1050–5.
Thomas M, O’Connor F, Albert M, Boutain D, Brandt PA. Case-based teaching and learning experiences. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2001;22(5):517–31.
Hay P, Katsikitis M. The ‘expert’ in problem-based and case-based learning: necessary or not? Med Educ 2001;35(1):22–6.
Reid WA, Evans P, Duvall E. Medical students’ approaches to learning over a full degree programme. Med Educ Online 2012;17(1):17205.
Srinivasan M, Wilkes M, Stevenson F, Nguyen T, Slavin S. Comparing problem-based learning with case-based learning: Effects of a major curricular shift at two institutions. Acad Med 2007;82(1):74–82.
Chan WP, Hsu CY, Hong CY. Innovative “Case-Based Integrated Teaching” in an undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Development and Teachers’ and Students’ Responses. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008;37(11):952–6.
Furnham A, Swami V, Arteche A, Chamorro-Premuzic T. Cognitive ability, learning approaches and personality correlates of general knowledge. Educ Psychol 2008;28(4):427–37.
Zeegers P. Student learning in higher education: A path analysis of academic achievement in science. High Educ Res Dev 200423(1):35–56.
Smith SN, Miller RJ. Learning approaches: Examination type, discipline of study, and gender. Educ Psychol 2005;25(1):43–53.
Schmidt H. Assumptions underlying self-directed learning may be false. Med Educ 2000;34(4):243–5.
Tait H, Entwistle N, McCune V. ASSIST: a reconceptualisation of the approaches to studying inventory. In: Rust C, editor. Improving student learning: improving students as learners. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, 1998; p.262–71.
Thistlethwaite JE, Davies D, Ekeocha S, Kidd JM, MacDougall C, Matthews P, et al. The effectiveness of case based learning in health professional education. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 23. Med Teach 2012;34(6):e421–44.
Fung LY. A Study on the Learning Approaches of Malaysian Students in Relation to English Language Acquisition. Am J Sci Res 2010;9:5–11.
Abedin NF, Jaafar Z, Husain S, Abdullah R. The Validity of ASSIST as a Measurement of Learning Approach among MDAB Students. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci 2013;90:549–57.
Altheide DL, Johnson JM. Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS, editors. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994; p.485–99.
Chamorro-Premuzic T, Furnham A. Mainly openness: The relationship between the Big Five personality traits and learning approaches. Learn Individ Differ 2009;19(4):524–9.
Susan F, McLean. Case-Based Learning and its Application in Medical and Health-Care Fields: A Review of Worldwide Literature. J Med Educ Curric Dev 2016;3:S20377.
Nijhuis JF, Segers MS, Gijselaers WH. Influence of redesigning a learning environment on student perceptions and learning strategies. Learn Environ Res 2005;8(1):67–93.
Kusurkar RA, Croiset G, Ten Cate TJ. Twelve tips to stimulate intrinsic motivation in students through autonomy-supportive classroom teaching derived from Self-Determination Theory. Med Teach 2011;33(12):978–82.
Lawless C, Richardson J. Approaches to studying and perceptions of academic quality in distance education. High Educ 2002;44(2):257–82.
Baker DP, Salas E, King H, Battles J, Barach P. The role of teamwork in the professional education of physicians: Current status and assessment recommendations. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2005;31(4):102–85.
Hasnor HN, Ahmad Z, Nordin N. The relationship between learning approaches and academic achievement among intec students, Procedia-Soc Behav Sci 2013;90:178–86.
Bansal M, Goyal M. To introduce and measure the effectiveness of case based learning in physiology. Int J Res Med Sci 2017;5(2):437–45.
Reid W, Duvall E, Evans P. Can we influence medical students’ approaches to learning? Med Teach 2005;27(5):401–7.
Baeten M, Dochy F, Struyven K. Enhancing students’ approaches to learning: the added value of gradually implementing case-based learning. Eur J Psychol Educ 2013;28(2):315–36.
Gaudet AD, Ramer LM, Nakonechny J, Cragg JJ, Ramer MS. Small-Group Learning in an Upper-Level University Biology Class Enhances Academic Performance and Student Attitudes Toward Group Work. PLoS One.2010;5(12):e15821.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.