• Tahira Jabeen Department of Applied Psychology Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
  • Syeda Farhana Kazmi Department of Psychology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Khyber Puktunkhwa
  • Atiq ur Rehman Govt. Post Graduate College Jaranwala, District Faisalabad, Punjab
  • Sajjad Ahmed Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad


Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad,  Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3,  p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience.Keyword: Upper limb disability, Lower limb disability, Personality traits

Author Biographies

Tahira Jabeen, Department of Applied Psychology Lahore College for Women University, Lahore

Ph.D Scholar, Department of Applied Psychology

Syeda Farhana Kazmi, Department of Psychology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Khyber Puktunkhwa

Chairperson, Department of Psychology

Atiq ur Rehman, Govt. Post Graduate College Jaranwala, District Faisalabad, Punjab

Lecturer, Department of Psychology

Sajjad Ahmed, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad

PG Orthopedics


World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health: ICF. Geneva: World Health Organization Geneva 2001.

World Health Organization. Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation Geneva Switz Author. 2005.

Heward WC. Exceptional children. An introduction to special education. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2000.

Harpur P. Embracing the new disability rights paradigm: the importance of the convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. Disabil Soc 2012;27(1):1–14.

Larsen RJ, Buss DM. Personality psychology: domains of knowledge about human nature. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

Funder DC, Fast LA. Personality in social psychology. Handbook of social psychology. (5th ed.). New York: Wiley; 2010. p.668–97.

Revelle W. Personality processes. Ann Rev Psychol 1995;46:295–328.

Ewen RB. Personality, a topical approach. Mahwah NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1998.

Harris JA, Vernon PA, Johnson AM, Jang KL. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between vocational interests and personality. Personal Individ Differ 2006;40(8):1531–41.

McCrae RR, Costa PT, Del Pilar GH, Rolland JP, Parker WD. Cross-cultural assessment of the five factor model: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory. J Cross Cult Psychol 1998;29(1):171–88.

Costa Jr PT, Widiger TA. Personality Disorders and the Five Factor Model of Personality. Washington, American Psychological Association; 1994.

Gill CM, Hodgkinson GP. Development and validation of the five factor model questionnaire: An adjectival-based personality inventory for use in occupational settings. Pers Psychol 2007;60(3):731–66.

Somer O, Goldberg LR. The structure of Turkish trait-descriptive adjectives. J Pers Soc Psychol 1999;76(3):431–50.

Aziz S, Jackson CJ. A Comparison between three and five factor models of Pakistani personality data. Personal Individ Differ 2001;31(8):1311–9.

Fichten CS, Amsel R. Trait Attributions About College Students With a Physical Disability: Circumplex Analyses and Methodological Issues1. J Appl Soc Psychol 1986;16(5):410–27.

Paull ME. Personality, Attitudes and Self-concept in Physically Disabled Children. University of London Institute of Education; 1986.

Miles S. Strengthening Disability and Development Work. London, Bond-Networking for International Development. 1999.

Ahmed T. Disabled population in Pakistan: Disabled statistics of neglected people. Sustainable Development Policy Institute; 1993.

Holland JL, Holland JE. Vocational indecision: More evidence and speculation. J Couns Psychol 1977;24(5):404.

Goldberg LR. The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychol Assess 1992;4(1):26.

McCrae R, Costa Jr P. Toward a New Generation of Personality Theories: Theoretical Contexts for the Five-factor Model [w:] JS Wiggins (ed.), The Five-factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives. N Y Guilford. 1996;51–87.

Comer RJ, Piliavin JA. The effects of physical deviance upon face-to-face interaction: the other side. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1972;23(1):33–9.

Hosken KC. Impact of disability on a handicapped individual's personality, Vocation and country. Retrieved www.agape-biblia.org/plugins/pract-ministries/Lect401.htm

Rokach A, Lechcier-Kimel R, Safarov A. Loneliness of people with physical disabilities. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal. 2006 Jan 1;34(6):681-700.

Michailakis D. The Systems Theory Concept of Disability: one is not born a disabled person, one is observed to be one. Disabil Soc 2003;18(2):209–29.

Maxis S. The relationship between school counselor self-efficacy and the rate of graduation for males at urban, Predominantly African American, Underperforming High Schools. 2011.

Booth T. "Progress in Inclusive Education." Paper presented at "Meeting Diverse Educational Needs: Making Inclusion a Reality; 2000.

Steinhausen HC, Wefers D. Intelligence structure and personality in various types of physical handicap in childhood and adolescence. Neuropadiatrie 1976;7(3):313–21.

Richardson SA. Handicap, appearance and stigma. Soc Sci Med 1967. 1971;5(6):621–8.

Byrne C. Improving the retention of students with disabilities in third level University of Dublin, Trinity College and the Institute of Technology, Tallaght; 2006.

Shakespeare, T. Disability, identity and difference. In: Barnes G, Mercer G. (Eds.), Exploring the divide: Illness and disability, Leeds, United Kingdom: The Disability Press; 1996. p.94–113.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>