• Zahwa Salam
  • Zainab Sadiq
  • Urooj Tajamul
  • Mifrah Rauf Sethi
  • Muhammad Irfan Head, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Peshawar Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad - Pakistan


Background: Internet gaming, though getting popular, is becoming a risk to physical and psychological health, especially in adolescents, as it contributes to sedentary lifestyle. To gauge the extent of the problem in our setup, we decided to find the frequency of internet gaming disorder in students of Peshawar and identify their motives for playing these games. Methods: This Cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to December 2018 and included students of Private and Public institutes of Peshawar. They were invited to complete a questionnaire comprising of Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), which includes 9 questions, with some additional demographic questions. The data were analysed using SPSS v.25. Results: The mean age of the sample (n=2116) was 21.5±2.1 years with the age range of 16-28 years. The cronbach’s alpha reliability of IGDS-SF9 in our study was 0.805. Majority of the participants were males (n=1261, 59.6%) and were from Private sector institutes (n=1314, 62.1%). A total of 32 (1.5%) students reported having Internet Gaming disorder. The results of chi square test showed that significantly more male students played games for social motives (p=.032), whereas significantly more female students played games for coping motives (p=.001). Pearson correlation results showed a significant positive correlation between time spent on gaming and internet gaming disorder (p=.000) and between internet gaming disorder with recreation as a motive (p=.027). Conclusion: Internet Gaming is getting common in our setup and IGDS-SF9 can be effectively used in our population because of its reliability.Keywords: Internet Gaming Disorder, Students, Peshawar

Author Biography

Muhammad Irfan, Head, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Peshawar Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad - Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad IrfanMBBS, MCPS (Psychiatry), FCPS (Psychiatry), CHPE, MS (Mental Health Policy & Services), PhDHead, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Peshawar Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad - Pakistan  President-Elect, Pakistan Association of Medical EditorsGeneral Secretary, Pakistan Association of Cognitive Therapists Director, of World Association of Cultural Psychiatry 


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington: DC; 2013.

Torres-Rodríguez A, Griffiths MD, Carbonell X, Farriols-Hernando N, Torres-Jimenez E. Internet Gaming Disorder Treatment: A Case Study Evaluation of Four Different Types of Adolescent Problematic Gamers. Int J Ment Health Addict 2017;17(1):1–12.

Griffiths MD, Davies MN, Chappell D. Online computer gaming: a comparison of adolescent and adult gamers. J. Adolesc 2004;27(1):87–96.

Wei HT, Chen MH, Huang PC, Bai YM. The association between online gaming, social phobia, and depression: an internet survey. BMC Psychiatry 2012;12(1):92–8.

Lemmens JS, Valkenburg PM, Peter J. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior. J Youth Adolesc 2011;40(1):38–47.

Elund J, Clayden J, Green L. Getting to know your avatar in Second Life. Australian J Commun 2010;37(2):73–86.

Cole H, Griffiths MD. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers. Cyberpsychol Behav 2007;10(4):575–83.

Lee BW, Leeson PR. Online gaming in the context of social anxiety. Psychol Addict Behav 2015;29(2):473–82.

Williams D, Kennedy TL, Moore RJ. Behind the avatar: The patterns, practices, and functions of role playing in MMOs. Games Cult 2011;6(2):171–200.

Greitemeyer T, Mügge DO. Video games do affect social outcomes: A meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2014;40(5):578–89.

Anderson CA, Bushman BJ. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychol Sci 2001;12(5):353–9.

Anderson CA, Carnagey NL. Violent evil and the general aggression model. In: Miller A, editor. The social psychology of good and evil. NewYork: Guiford Publications: 2004; p.168–92.

Anderson CA, Carnagey NL, Flanagan M, Benjamin AJ, Eubanks J, Valentine JC. Violent video games: Specific effects of violent content on aggressive thoughts and behavior. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 2004;36:199–249.

Lee MS, Ko YH, Song HS, Kwon KH, Lee HS, Nam M, et al. Characteristics of Internet use in relation to game genre in Korean adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav 2006;10(2):278–85.

Elliott L, Golub A, Ream G, Dunlap E. Video game genre as a predictor of problem use. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2012;15(3):155–61.

Kuss DJ, Louws J, Wiers RW. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2012;15(9):480–5.

Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. Measuring DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder: Development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Comput Hum Behav 2015;45:137–43.

Demetrovics Z, Urbán R, Nagygyörgy K, Farkas J, Zilahy D, Mervó B, et al. Why do you play? The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ). Behav Res Methods 2011;43(3):814–25.

Stavropoulos V, Beard C, Griffiths MD, Buleigh T, Gomez R, Pontes HM. Measurement invariance of the internet gaming disorder scale–short-form (IGDS9-SF) between Australia, the USA, and the UK. Int J Ment Health Addict 2018;16(2):377–92.

Fam JY. Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta-analysis across three decades. Scand J Psychol 2018;59(5):524–31.

Rehbein F, Kliem S, Baier D, Mößle T, Petry NM. Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: Diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM‐5 criteria in a state‐wide representative sample. Addiction 2015;110(5):842–51.

Vadlin S, Åslund C, Rehn M, Nilsson KW. Psychometric evaluation of the adolescent and parent versions of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Scand J Psychol 2015;56(6):726–35.

Müller KW, Janikian M, Dreier M, Wölfling K, Beutel ME, Tzavara C, et al. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2015;24(5):565–74.

King DL, Delfabbro P. The cognitive psychopathology of Internet gaming disorder in adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2016;44(8):1635–45.

Donati MA, Chiesi F, Ammannato G, Primi C. Versatility and addiction in gaming: the number of video-game genres played is associated with pathological gaming in male adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2015;18(2):129–32.

Na E, Choi I, Lee TH, Lee H, Rho MJ, Cho H, et al. The influence of game genre on Internet gaming disorder. J Behav Addict 2017;29:1–8.

Hilgard J, Engelhardt CR, Bartholow BD. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES). Front Psychol 2013;4:608–20.

Laconi S, Pirès S, Chabrol H. Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. Comput Hum Behav 2017;75:652–9.

Šporčić B, Glavak-Tkalić R. The relationship between online gaming motivation, self-concept clarity and tendency toward problematic gaming. Cyberpsychol J Psychosoc Res on Cyberspace 2018;12(1):1–4.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>