RISING SUICIDE RATES IN PAKISTAN: IS IT ABOUT TIME TO BREAK THE SILENCE?
AbstractSuicide is a public health problem worldwide. More than one million people kill themselves every year. Suicide is a complex issue with biological, psychological and social etiological factors. Depression is the main pathway which leads to suicidal behavior. Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the young age group. There is a steady rise in suicides over the last decade, globally. The rise is more alarming in Asian countries, contributing more than 60% to the world statistics. Pakistan is a South Asian country with a weak health system and meagre mental health resources. In Pakistan, various reports point towards shocking suicide rates with exponential rise over the years. There is a dire need to address the issue by adopting a holistic approach, taking into account the biological, psychological and social factors.Keywords: Suicide; Suicidal behaviour; Depression; Common mental disorders
WHO. Mental health: suicide data [Internet]. World Health Organization 2016 [cited 2019 Dec 25]. Available from: http://who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/
WHO, By category. Suicide rate estimates, age-standardized - Estimates by country [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2019 Dec 25]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.MHSUICIDEASDR
Khan MM, Naqvi H, Thaver D, Prince M. Epidemiology of suicide in Pakistan: determining rates in six cities. Arch Suicide Res 2008;12(2):155–60.
Drapeau A, Marchand A, Beaulieu-Prévost D. Epidemiology of psychological distress. Ment Illnesses-Underst Predict Control 2012;69:105–6.
Bailey RK, Patel TC, Avenido J, Patel M, Jaleel M, Barker NC, et al. Suicide: current trends. J Natl Med Assoc 2011;103:614–7.
Khan MM, Hyder AA. Suicides in the developing world: Case study from Pakistan. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2006;36(1):76–81.
Yousafzai A. national psychiatric conference swat. In Swat; 20-22 September 2019.
Aamir G. Silent screams. [Internet]. The News 2020 vol.29 P.7 [cited 2020 Feb 27]. Available from: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/600687-silent-screams
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Provisional Summary results of 6th population census [Internet]. Islamabad; 2017. [cited 2019 Dec 25]. Available from: http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//DISTRICT_WISE_CENSUS_RESULTS_CENSUS_2017.pdf
Mirza I, Jenkins R. Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review. BMJ 2004;328(7443):794.
Yousafzai AW, Bano S. Gloomy faces behind the white coats: Depression in Medical students calls for action. Khyber Med Univ J 2019;11(1):1–3.