• Nabbiya Noor Ayub Medical College
  • Asifa Zubair Ayub Medical College
  • Wasim Ijaz Ayub Medical College


Background: The present era has been commanded by ample studies correlating breathing modes & risk of occurrence of malocclusion. The early intervention of altered breathing patterns can head off the long-lasting effects of already established malocclusion. The main intention of this project was to establish the possible correlation between mouth-breathing & malocclusions. Methods: Sixty-two (62) patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated via data form (including history & clinical evaluation). SPSS software version 25.0 was used for data analysis. Patient’s age, gender, type of Angle’s malocclusion & breathing pattern was taken in account while analysing data. Descriptive statistics & Chi- Square test was applied on the data. It was anticipated that mouth breathing is associated with malocclusion. p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 29 males & 33 females participated in the study. The mean age was 13 years (range 6–20 years). A significant correlation was found between mouth-breathing, tongue thrust (p=0.03) & bleeding gums (p=0.006). Other parameters had no significant correlation with mouth-breathing. Conclusion: The current study revealed that mouth breathing has significant association with opened mouth at rest & gingival abnormalities (bleeding/ swollen gums) implying that timely diagnosis of such abnormal breathing pattern can hinder with development of altered occlusion & dentofacial conformation.

Author Biographies

Nabbiya Noor, Ayub Medical College

House officer, department of dentistry

Asifa Zubair, Ayub Medical College

House officer, Department of Dentistry

Wasim Ijaz, Ayub Medical College

Assistant Professor, Orthodontics


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