• Ismaa Ghazanfar Kiani Department of Medicine, Federal Government Polyclinic Hospital, Islamabad
  • Adil Naseer Khan Department of Gastroenterology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad
  • Saadia Yasir Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Hospital, Mirpur, AJK
  • Urooj Taheed Baluch Department of Medicine, Jinnah Post-Graduate Medical Centre Karachi


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of coronary risk factors such as diabetes and pre-diabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglyceride (TG), low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and high blood pressure (BP). It is estimated that around a quarter of the world’s adult population have MetS and they are twice as likely to die from it and three times as likely to have a coronary event or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted at the Department of General Medicine, Federal Government Polyclinic Islamabad. All type-2 diabetics presenting in the outpatient and inpatient department during 11 months between the ages of 30–80 were enrolled. They were interviewed, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were checked. Results: Of the 300 patients 165 (55%) were females and 135 (45%) were males with mean age 52.47±11.24 years. The mean duration of Diabetes Mellitus was 7.38±3.85 years. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 83% of the study population, 129 (43%) were male and 171 (57%) were female. The p-value was statistically significant on comparing the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome with waist circumference, serum triglyceride levels, and blood pressure as it was <0.05. The most commonly occurring finding was a decreased HDL-cholesterol in both genders. Conclusions: The MetS was present in 83% of the diabetic population, mostly in females with decreased HDL-cholesterol being the most common in both genders.


Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsén B, Lahti K, Nissén M, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24(4):683–9.

Stern MP, Williams K, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Hunt KJ, Haffner SM. Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Care 2004;27(11):2676–81.

Kaplan NM. The deadly quartet. Upper-body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1989;149(7):1514–20.

Alexander CM, Landsman PB, Teutsch SM, Haffner SM. NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older. Diabetes 2003;52(5):1210–4.

Ashraf S, Ziauddin F, Jahangeer U. Metabolic syndrome in Type2 diabetes mellitus. Pak J Med Sci 2006;22:295–9.

Saad MF, Lillioja S, Nyomba BL, Castillo C, Ferraro R, De Gregorio M, et al. Racial differences in the relation between blood pressure and insulin resistance. N Engl J Med 1991;324(11):733–9.

Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation 2001;104(23):2855–64.

Ravikiran M, Bhansali A, Ravikumar P, Bhansali S, Dutta P, Thakur JS, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians: a community survey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;89(2):181–8.

Zuo H, Shi Z, Hu X, Wu M, Guo Z, Hussain A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its components in Chinese adults. Metabolism 2009;58(8):1102–8.

Janghorbani M, Amini M. Metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran: prevalence and risk factors. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2007;5(3):243–54.

Imam SK, Shahid SK, Hassan A, Alvi Z. Frequency of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic subjects attending the diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital. J Pak Med Assoc 2007;57(5):239–41.

Song SH, Hardisty CA. Diagnosing metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: does it matter? QJM 2008;101(6):487–91.

Bentley-Lewis R, Koruda K, Seely EW. The metabolic syndrome in women. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2007;3(10):696–704.

Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig AJ, Stob NR, et al. The metabolic syndrome. Endocr Rev 2008;29(7):777–822.

Santos AC, Ebrahim S, Barros H. Gender, socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and old adults. BMC Public Health 2008;8:62.

Khan SH, Khan FA, Ijaz A, Sattar A, Dilawar M, Hashim R. Hypertension and metabolic syndrome: Impact of clustering of hypertension in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Pak J Med Sci 2007;23(6):903–8.

Koster A, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Adams KF, van Eijk JT, et al. Waist circumference and mortality. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:1465–75.

Uzunlulu M, Oguz A, Tinazli M, Takir M, Eker P. Relationship between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients. Acta Cardiol 2005;60(5):532–6.

Rana MM, Akhtar MS, Bashir MB, Rehman A. Type 2 Diabetics; components of the metabolic syndrome. Professional Med J 2006;13(3):453–9.



Most read articles by the same author(s)