GROSS MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PREMATURE AND POST MATURE HUMAN PLANCENTAE
AbstractBackground: Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35–37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery.Keywords: Pregnancy, Premature, Postmature, Insufficiency, Placentae, Hypertensive, Gestational age
Phad N, Dahlstrom JE, Ellwood D, Kent AL. The effect of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders on placental growth along short and long axes and neonatal outcomes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;55(3):239–44.
Roberts JM, Cooper DW. Preeclampsia trio. Pathogenisis and Genetics of Preeclampsia. Lancet 2001;357:53–6.
Das R, Biswas S. Eclapmsia: The Major Cause of Maternal Mortality in Eastern India. Ethiop J Health Sci 2015;25(2):111–6
Faye-Peterson OM. The placenta in preterm birth. J Clin Pathol 2008,61(2):1261–75
Germaine AM, Carvajal J, Sanchez M, Valenzuela GJ, Tsunekawa H, Chuaqui B: Preterm labor: placental pathology and clinical correlation. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94(2):284–9.
C Burton: Placenta and Placental Problems. Patient Plus, (2006) 20:159
Ito H, Tanaka T, Watanabe H, Ito K. Ultrastructural observation of the placenta in prolonged pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;10(20):211–6.
Hilder L, Costeloe K, Thilaganathan B. Prolonged Pregnancy: evaluating gestation in specific risks of fetal and infant mortality. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1998;105:169–73.
Fox H: Histological approach to villous alteration. In; Pathology of Human Placenta, 5th ed. New York 2006; pp:473–90.
Dahlstrom B, Romundstad P, Oian P, Vatten LJ, Eskild A. Placental weight in pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(6):608–11.
Fox H. Aging of placenta. Arch Dis Childhood-Fetal Edi 1997;77:171–5.
H Fox: General Pathology Of Placenta. Obstetrics and Gynecological Pathology ed. H Fox. New York: Churchill Livingstone. 1995, pp. 1477–1508.
H Fox H: Histological approach to villous alteration. Pathology of Human Placenta. 5th ed. New York. 2006, Pp 473–90.
K Avasthi, U Micha: Histopathology of placenta and its correlation with fetal outcome. J Obstet Gynecol Ind, 1991;41:317.
K Benirschke, P Kaufmann. Pathology of the human placenta. 4th Ed. New York: Springer Vorleg, 2000.
RK Shah, KS Jagiwala, PK Vyas: Placental morphology and fetal growth in normal and abnormal pregnancies. J Obstet Gynecol Ind 1985;35:1089–94.
Cibils LA. The placenta and newborn infant in hypertensive conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974;118(2):256–70.
Ashfaq M, Janjua MZ, Channa MA. Effect of gestational diabetes and maternal hypertension on gross morphology of placenta. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2005;17(1):44–7.
Das B, Dutta D, Chakraborthy S, Nath P. Placental morphology in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and its correlation with fetal outcome. J Obstet Gynecol India 1996;46(1):40–6.
IS Novitsky, LN Belomestnova, AP Chernykh: The influence of over term pregnancy on the state of the placenta and the fetus. Akusherstvo/ Ginekologiya(Moscow). 1976, 1:29–32.
Olofsson P, Saldeen P, Marsal K. Fetal and uteroplacental circulatory changes in pregnancies proceeding beyond 43 weeks. Early Human Development 1996;46:1–13.