MANAGEMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT, DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR AND AGGRESSION THROUGH ART AND BEHAVIOR THERAPY AMONG INTERNALLY DISPLACED CHILDREN
AbstractBackground: This study was conducted to explore the occurrence of aggression, disruptive behavior and nature of self-concept among internally displaced and un-displaced children. This study also examines the effectiveness of art therapy and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique of behavior therapy in the treatment of psychological problems among internally displaced children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a semi-structured interview and Beck Youth Inventory for children and adolescents (2nd edition) were used for assessment. The sample comprised 192 internally displaced and 90 un-displaced children. After taking formal permission from head of the schools, internally displaced children were assessed in their schools arranged for them at Jalozi camp, whereas un-displaced children were assessed at different schools of settled areas in Peshawar. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze mean differences, standard deviation and t-values. Results: Results supported the hypothesis. Internally displaced children showed higher levels of aggression (39.38±6.60) with t (280) = 8.57, and disruptive behavior (40.97±3.90) with t (280) = 6.76, and lower levels of self-concept (48.71±8.31) with t (280) = -15.32. Conclusion: Internally displaced children showed high levels of aggression and disruptive behavior, whereas their self-esteem was lower than the un-displaced children. This study also provides support to the idea that art therapy and technique of behavior therapy can be helpful in treatment of post trauma psychological issues in children. Keywords: Aggression; Disruptive behavior; Self-concept; Internally displaced and un-displaced; Children; Art therapy; Behavior therapy; Progressive muscle relaxation technique
Ghosh, N., Mohit, A., & Murthy, R. S. (2004). Mental health promotion in post-
conflict countries. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 124(6), 268 70. Retrieved on December 22, 2013 From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1560299
Gardner, H. (1980). Artful scribbles: The significance of children’s drawings. New York: Basic Books.
National Child traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). Effects of Complex Trauma. Retrieved February 2nd ,2015, from http://www.nctsn.org/about-us/about-this-web-site#q6
Khamis, V. (2005). Post traumatic stress disorder among school age Palestinian children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 81-95
Leslie, L. K., Gordon, J. N., Lambros, K., Premji, K., Peoples, J., & Gist, K. (2005). Addressing the developmental and mental health needs of young children in foster care. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 26(2), 140-151.
Weiten, W., Dunn, D. S., & Hammer, E. Y. (2012). Psychology applied to modern life: adjustment in 21st century. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Beck, J. S., Beck, A. T., Jolly, J. B., & Steer, R. A. (2005). Beck Youth Inventories
Second Edition for Children and Adolescents manual. San Antonion, TX: PsychCorp
American Medical Association. (2008). Model medical staff code of conduct. Retrieved
on 23rd July 2014, from http://www.ismanet.org/pdf/news/medcalstaffcodeofconduc.pdf. American Psychiatry
Mousa, F. & Madi, H. (2003). Impact of the humanitarian crisis in the occupied Palestinian territory on people and services. Gaza: United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. (1985). Methodological issues in stress research. In A. Eichler, D. Silverman, & H. Pratt (Eds.), how to define and research stress (pp.95-104). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Steel W, Raider M. Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents and Parents (SITCAP). Mellen Press Ltd., New York: NY; 2009.
Mollica, R. F., Donelan, k., Tor, S., Lavelle, J., Elias, C., Frankel, M., & Blendon, R. J. (1993). The effect of trauma and confinement on functional health and mental health status of Cambodians living in Thailand-Cambodia border camps. Journal of American Medical Association, 270(5), 581 6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8331755
Everly, G.S., & Mitchell, J.T. (2000). The debriefing 'controversy' and crisis intervention: a review of lexical and substantive issues. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health,2, 211–225. Everly, Jr.,
Chilcote, & Rebekah, L. (2007). Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka. Art Therapy: American Art Therapy Association, 24(4), 156 162. doi:10.1080/07421656.2007.10129475
Drapeau, MC. & Kronish, N. (2007). Creative Art Therapy Groups: a Treatment Modality for Psychiatric Outpatients. Art Therapy: Journal of the American art Therapy Association, 24, (2). 76-81. doi: 10.1080/07421656.2007.10129585.
Czamanski-Cohen, J. (2010). “Oh! Now I remember”: the use of a studio approach to art therapy with internally displaced people. The arts in psychotherapy, doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2010.09.003
Zucker, T. L., Samuelson, K. W., Muench, F., Greenberg, M. A., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2009) The effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on heart rate variability and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 34(2),135-43. doi: 10.1007/s10484-009-9085-2