ACTIONS SPEAK LOUDER THAN WORDS: IMPACT OF KINESICS ON UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
AbstractBackground: Nonverbal communication constitutes significant proportion of human communication besides spoken words. This study explored teacher’s perceptions about impact of kinesics (facial expressions, gestures, head movements and postures) on undergraduate medical education within a classroom setting. Methods: A survey-based exploratory research was carried out from July–August 2020. Medical teachers from two private dental colleges of Islamabad were included in the sampling frame. The survey questions were validated and approved by all authors before execution. Frequencies and percentages of closed-ended questions were calculated while thematic analysis for open-ended questions was done by all authors to get consensus on themes, hence ensuring analytical triangulation. Results: Forty-six teachers responded to the survey. The most frequently shown facial expressions were ‘happiness and enthusiasm’ (76.1%) creating friendly, conducive, and motivating learning environment. ‘Smile’ was considered powerful communicative signal (95.7%) whereas ‘anger’ was thought to be communication barrier leading to stressful and demotivating learning environment. Neutral expressions were considered helpful to maintain class decorum. ‘OK sign with raised thumb’ (50%) was found helpful to develop special teacher-student connection and ‘head nod’ (84.8%) was encouraging students to continue giving answers. Standing posture (81%) exhibited teacher’s commitment towards teaching and produced active learning environment. Conclusion: Teachers should start lecture with welcoming facial expressions, i.e., smile to build rapport with students. Anger should be avoided as it demotivates students by making learning environment stressful. We need to train faculty regarding effective use of nonverbal communication strategies to improve student’s learning experience and to create positive learning environment.
Bambaeeroo F, Shokrpour N. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching. J Adv Med Educ Prof 2017;5(2):51–9.
Hall JA, Horgan TG, Murphy NA. Annual Review of Psychology; Nonverbal communication. Annu Rev Psy-chol 2019;70:271–94.
Hale AJ, Freed J, Ricotta D, Farris G, Smith CC. Twelve tips for effective body language for medical educators. Med Teach 2017;39(9):914–9.
Gabbott M, Hogg G. The Role of Non-verbal Communi-cation in Service Encounters: A Conceptual Framework. J Mark Manag 2001;17(1-2):5–26.
Schmitz A. An introduction to interpersonal communication: A Primer on Communication Studies. Chap 4, Nonverbal communication; 2012; p.181–246.
Affini LN. A Study of Kinesics Category and the Mani-festation Towards a Toddler Attitudes. ETERNAL Engl Teach J 2017;8(2):3048.
Ali SS, Ishtiaq M, Khan M. Conversation Analysis of Muhammad (PBUH) for exploring his Effective Use of Nonverbal Communication including Paralinguistic Fea-tures. Rahatulquloob 2019;3(2):75–86.
Wisankosol P. The Significance of Nonverbal Communi-cation in Business. Acad J Bangkokthonburi Univ 2018;7(2):234–42.
Kee JWY, Khoo HS, Lim I, Koh MYH. Communication Skills in Patient-Doctor Interactions: Learning from Pa-tient Complaints. Heal Prof Educ 2018;4(2):97–106.
Artino AR, Rochelle JSLA, Dezee KJ, Gehlbach H. De-veloping questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No. 87. Med Tech 2014;36(6):463–74.
Egon G. Guba YSL. Epistemological and Methodological Basis of Naturalistic Inquiry. ECTJ 1982;30(4):233–52.
Butt M, Iqbal M. Teacher’s Perceptions Regarding Facial Expressions As An Effective Teaching Tool. Contemp Issues Educ Res 2011;4(2):11–4.
Chen J. Exploring the impact of teacher emotions on their approaches to teaching: A structural equation modelling approach. Br J Educ Psychol 2019;89(1):57–74.
Rahmtalla EMA. Investigating the impact of Teachers ’ Personal and Professional Characteristics on Beginners ’ Learning of English Language. (A case study of 5th class Basic Schools, Addamer, 2014-2015). 2016.
Burić I, Frenzel AC. Teacher anger: New empirical in-sights using a multi-method approach. Teach Teach Educ 2019;86:102895.
Liew TW, Mat Zin NA, Sahari N, Tan SM. The effects of a pedagogical agent’s smiling expression on the learner’s emotions and motivation in a virtual learning environ-ment. Int Rev Res Open Distrib Learn 2016;17(5):248–66.
Jakonen T, Evnitskaya N. Teacher smiles as an interac-tional and pedagogical resource in the classroom. J Prag-mat 2020;163:18–31.
Yeo A, Ledesma I, Nathan MJ, Alibali MW, Church RB. Teachers’ gestures and students’ learning: sometimes “hands off” is better. Cogn Res Princ Implic 2017;2(1):41.
Barmaki R, Hughes CE. A case study to track teacher gestures and performance in a virtual learning environ-ment. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Confer-ence on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, 2015; p.420–1.
Roth WM. Gestures: Their role in teaching and learning. Rev Educ Res 2001;71(3):365–92.
McNeill D. Why we gesture; The Surprising Role of Hand Movements in Speech. University of Chicago: Cambridge University Press; 2016.
Restuningrum N. Teachers’ strategy of positioning in teaching young learners. Int J Educ Best Pract 2018;2(1):1–13.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.