EFFECT OF SERUM VISFATIN LEVELS ON HEPATIC ENZYMES AND ELECTROLYTES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ANTHROPOMETIC DATA IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ECLAMPSIA AND PREECLAMPSIA.
AbstractBackground: Eclampsia and preeclampsia are among the serious complications of gestation and threaten the lives of both mother and foetus. A protein called visfatin, one of these adipokines, is evaluated for its effects on serum electrolytes, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients. Methods: A sum of 234 pregnant women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and divided in to 2 main groups, i.e., Group A (eclamptic/preeclamptic) Group B (control) pregnant women respectively. Serum visfatin levels (ng/mL), serum electrolytes and liver enzymes were determined for every patient, using relative diagnostic kits. Anthropometric measurements were also noted. Results: A total of 234 women (cases; n=160, controls; n=74) with gestation age of ≥20 weeks participated in this study. Group A had 86 (36.75%) women with preeclampsia and 74 (31.62%) women with eclampsia whereas Group B had 74 (31.62%) normotensive pregnant women. A strong significantly positive association was recorded for systolic (R2=78.78; p-value <0.000) and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (R2=78.52; p-value <0.000). Similar result was obtained for serum sodium ions (R2=3.09; p-value <0.002) and chloride ions (R2=7.36; p-value <0.000). Alkaline phosphatases (ALP) (R2=63.47; p-value <0.000) had also shown a strong positive and statistically significant association with visfatin levels. Conclusion: Serum visfatin significantly decreased the sodium and chloride levels whereas the levels of potassium remained unaffected. A very strong and positive association of visfatin levels with levels of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatases was also observed (ALP) but it found no effect on aspartate transferases (AST).
Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Park MM, Sutton PD. Births: final data for 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2002;51(2):n2.
Ahmed T, Ali S, Aliaga A, Arnold F, Ayub M, Bhatti M, et al. Pakistan demographic and health survey 1990/91. Islamabad: National Institute of Population Studies. 1992; p.9–13.
Matsuzawa Y. The metabolic syndrome and adipocytokines. FEBS Lett 2006;580(12):2917–21.
Vaisbuch E, Romero R, Mazaki-Tovi S, Erez O, Kim SK, Chaiworapongsa T, et al. Retinol binding protein 4–a novel association with early-onset preeclampsia. J Perinat Med 2010;38(2):129–39.
Katwa LC, Seidel ER. Visfatin in pregnancy: proposed mechanism of peptide delivery. Amino Acids 2009;37(4):555–8.
Szamatowicz J, Kuźmicki M, Telejko B, Zonenberg A, Nikołajuk A, Kretowski A, et al. Serum visfatin concentration is elevated in pregnant women irrespectively of the presence of gestational diabetes. Ginekol Pol 2009;80(1):14–8.
Fasshauer M, Blüher M, Stumvoll M, Tönessen P, Faber R, Stepan H. Differential regulation of visfatin and adiponectin in pregnancies with normal and abnormal placental function. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007;66(3):434–9.
Stepan H, Philipp A, Reiche M, Klostermann K, Schrey S, Reisenbüchler C, et al. Serum levels of the adipokine lipocalin-2 are increased in preeclampsia. J Endocrinol Invest 2010;33(9):629–32.
Carrero JJ, Cordeiro AC, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P. The emerging pleiotrophic role of adipokines in the uremic phenotype. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2010;19(1):37–42.
Carrero JJ, Stenvinkel P. Inflammation in end‐stage renal disease—what have we learned in 10 years? In Wiley Online Library. 2010; p.498–509.
Fasshauer M, Waldeyer T, Seeger J, Schrey S, Ebert T. Serum levels of the adipokinevisfatin are increased in preeclampsia. Clin Endocrinol 2008;69(1):69–73.
Moschen AR, Kaser A, Enrich B, Mosheimer B, Theurl M, Niederegger H, et al. Visfatin, an adipocytokine with proinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. J Immunol 2007;178(3):1748–58.
Fasshauer M, Waldeyer T, Seeger J, Schrey S, Ebert T, Kratzsch J, et al. Serum levels of the adipokine visfatin are increased in pre‐eclampsia. Clin Endocrinol 2008;69(1):69–73.
Kim SC, Park MJ, Joo BS, Joo JK, Suh DS, Lee KS. Decreased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and visfatin in the placental bed of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2012;38(4):665–73.
Hu W, Wang Z, Wang H, Huang H, Dong M. Serum visfatin levels in late pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008;87(4):413–8.
Chen CC, Li TC, Li CI, Liu CS, Lin WY, Wu MT, et al. The relationship between visfatin levels and anthropometric and metabolic parameters: association with cholesterol levels in women. Metabolism 2007;56(9):1216–20.
Chen MP, Chung FM, Chang DM, Tsai JCR, Huang HF, Shin SJ, et al. Elevated plasma level of visfatin/pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91(1):295–9.
Berndt J, Klöting N, Kralisch S, Kovacs P, Fasshauer M, Schön MR, et al. Plasma visfatin concentrations and fat depot–specific mRNA expression in humans. Diabetes 2005;54(10):2911–6.
Sandeep S, Velmurugan K, Deepa R, Mohan V. Serum visfatin in relation to visceral fat, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian Indians. Metabolism 2007;56(4):565–70.
Kupferminc MJ, Daniel Y, Englender T. Vascular endothelial growth factor is increased in patients with preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997;38(4):302–6.
Adali E, Yildizhan R, Kolusari A. Increased visfatin and leptin in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2009;22:873–9.
Varughese B, Bhatla N, Kumar R, Dwivedi SN, Dhingra R. Circulating angiogenic factors in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Natl Med J India 2010;23(2):77–81.
Gunes F, Akbal E, Cakir E, Akyurek O, Altunbas M, Ozbek M. Visfatin may be a novel marker for identifying stages of essential hypertension in advanced age patients. Internal Med 2012;51(6):553–7.
Dogru T, Sonmez A, Tasci I, Yilmaz M, Erdem G, Erturk H, et al. Plasma visfatin levels in young male patients with uncomplicated and newly diagnosed hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 2007;21(2):173–5.
Faisal A, Ali R, Maha M, Tariq H. Sodium imbalance in preeclampsia. Iraqi J Med Sci 2009;7(1):41–8.
Clausen MV, Hilbers F, Poulsen H. The Structure and Function of the Na,K-ATPase Isoforms in Health and Disease. Front Physiol 2017;8:371.
Perez V, Chang ET. Sodium-to-potassium ratio and blood pressure, hypertension, and related factors. Adv Nutr 2014;5(6):712–41.
Arumanayagam M, Rogers M. Platelet sodium pump and sodium potassium cotransport activity in nonpregnant, normotensive, and hypertensive pregnant women. Hypertens Pregnancy 1999;18(1):35–44.
Gallen IW, Rosa RM, Esparaz DY, Young JB, Robertson GL, Batlle D, et al. On the mechanism of the effects of potassium restriction on blood pressure and renal sodium retention. Am J Kidney Dis 1998;31(1):19–27.