• Fareeha Adnan The Indus Hospital
  • Nazia Khursheed
  • Maira Khan
  • Maria Mushtaq Ali
  • Shakir Hussain
  • Neelum mansoor



Multidrug Resistant Organism, Gram-negative Bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria


Background There is a continuous increase in the number of bacteria showing resistance to various antibiotics, limiting the treatment options for infections. The objectives of this study was to assess the trend in resistance pattern of multi drug resistant organisms over a period of 6 years. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in Indus hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2014 to December 2019. Multidrug resistant organisms were isolated from various samples and the data of corresponding patients were extracted from electronic medical record. The patients of all age groups were included. Specimens were inoculated on Sheep Blood Agar, chocolate agar and MacConkeys agar. Organisms were identified and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results   In 34628 cases, 5159 (14.8%) were isolated as MDR organisms. Out of these cases 44.2% were Gram negative, while 55.7% were Gram-positive bacteria. The highest MDR trend was observed for A. baumannii (0 to 70%) followed by >MRSA (0 to 64%) > P. aeruginosa (0 to 16%) >Enterococcus (0 to 10%) > CRE (2.8 to 5.8%). MDR A. buamannii, MRSA, VRE and CRE showed substantially increasing temporal trends.  Conclusion MDR is emerged as a global health problem. There is an imperative need of constant monitoring and firm adherence to infection control strategies to avoid spread of MDR organisms.


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