• Nasir Ahmed Ayub Medical Institute, Abbottabad
  • Syed Moosa Kazim
  • Syed Yasir Gillani


Background: Bronchial asthma is a common disease and most asthmatics are obese. Both asthma and obesity are showing parallel trends in their increasing prevalence. Obesity is also the main component of metabolic syndrome and several studies have shown metabolic syndrome to be associated with bronchial asthma. The present study was, therefore, designed to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients with chronic asthma in our setup. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from May to November, 2014. One hundred and fifty-four asthmatic patients were enrolled in this study. Samples for blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL Cholesterol were taken after an overnight fast. Sitting blood pressure was measured with mercury sphygmomanometer after 10 minutes of rest. Waist circumference was measured at the level of the midpoint between the high point of the iliac crest and the last rib. Results: Out of 154 patients, 80 were males and 74 were females. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 46 (29.87%) patients. When metabolic syndrome was stratified according to age, sex and duration of asthma, the results were found to be insignificant (p-0.89, 0.30 and 0.85). Conclusion: This study showed that metabolic syndrome was present in almost one third of study population.Keywords: Obesity; Metabolic Syndrome; Asthma

Author Biography

Nasir Ahmed, Ayub Medical Institute, Abbottabad

Associate Professor of Medicine 


National Institutes of Health. Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. NHLBIWHO Work Shop Rep. 1995.

Sembaiwe G, Cifuentes M, Tak SW, Kriebel D, Gore R, Punnett L. National income, self-reported wheezing and asthma diagnosis from the World Health Survey. Eur Respir J 2010;35(2):279–86.

Chiesi. Respiratory Diseases [Internet]. Chiesi Pakistan. [cited 2015 Jan 4]. Available from; Respiratory+Diseases

International Diabetes Federation. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome [internet]. [cited 2015 Jan 4]. Available from;

Beltran-Sanchez H, Harhay MO, Harhay mm, McElligott S. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome in the adult U.S. population, 1999-2010. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62(8):697–703.

Pemminati S, Prabha Adhikari MR, Pathak R, Pai MR. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using IDF 2005 guidelines in a semi-urban south Indian (Boloor Diabetes Study) population of Mangalore. J Assoc Physicians India 2010;58:674–7.

Iqbal Hydrie MZ, Shera AS, Fawwad A, Basit A, Hussain D Sc A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban Pakistan (Karachi): comparison of newly proposed International Diabetes Federation and modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2009;7(2):119–2.

Aaron SD, Vandemheen KL, Boulet LP, McIvor RA, Fitzgerald JM, Hernandez P, et al. Overdiagnosis of asthma in obese and non-obese adults. CMAJ 2008;179(11):1121–31.

Brumpton BM, Camargo CA Jr, Romundstad PR, Langhammer A, Chen Y, Mai XM. Metabolic syndrome and incidence of asthma in adults: the HUNT study. Eur Respir J 2013;42(6):1495–502.

Del-Rio-Navarro BE, Castro-Rodriguez JA, Garibay Nieto N, Berber A, Toussaint G, Sienra-Monge JJ, et al. Higher metabolic syndrome in obese asthmatic compared to obese nonasthmatic males. J Asthma 2010;47(5):501–6.

Chinn S, Rona RJ. Can the increase in body mass index explain the rising trend in asthma in children? Thorax 2001;56(11):845–50.

Hsiao FC, Wu CZ, Su SC, Sun MT, Hsieh CH, Hung YJ, et al. Baseline forced expiratory volume in the first second as an independent predictor of development of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism 2010;59(6):848–53.

Barnes PJ. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects beyond the lungs. PLoS Med 2010;7(3):e1000220.

Leone N, Courbon D, Thomas F, Bean K, Jego B, Leynaert B, et al. Lung function impairment and metabolic syndrome: the critical role of abdominal obesity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009;179(6):509–16.

Scichilone N, Rizzo M, Benfante A, Catania R, Giglio RV, Nikolic D, et al. Serum low density lipoprotein subclasses in asthma. Respir Med 2013;107(12):1866–72.

Castro-Giner F, Kogevinas M, Imboden M, de Cid R, Jarvis D, Machler M, et al. Joint effect of obesity and TNFA variability on asthma: two international cohort studies. Eur Respir J 2009;33(5):1003–9.

Taylor B, Mannino D, Brown C, Crocker D, Twum-Baah N, Holguin F. Body mass index and asthma severity in the National Asthma Survey. Thorax 2008;63(1):14–20.

Watz H, Waschki B, Kirsten A, Muller KC, Kretschmar G, Meyer T, et al. The metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic bronchitis and COPD: frequency and associated consequences for systemic inflammationand physical inactivity. CHEST J 2009;136(4):1039–46.

Lee EJ, In KH, Ha ES, Lee KJ, Hur GY, Kang EH, et al. Asthma-like symptoms are increased in the metabolic syndrome. J Asthma 2009;46(4):339–42.

Uzunlulu M, Oguz A, Gedik C, Asian G, Arik S. Is prevalence of metabolic syndrome high in patients with asthma? Acta Clin Belg 2011;66(1):49–52.

Adeyeye OO, Ogbera AO, Ogunleye OO, Brodie-Mens AT, Abolarinwa FF, Bamisile RT, et al. Understanding asthma and the metabolic syndrome-a Nigerian report. Int Arch Med 2012;5(1):20.

Forte GC, Grutcki DM, Menegotto SM, Pereira RP, Dalcin Pde T. Prevalence of obesity in asthma and its relations with asthma severity and control. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2013;59(6):594–9.



Most read articles by the same author(s)