Aftab Alam Khan, Salim Khan Marwat, Muhammad Munir Noor, Saniya Fatima


Background: Beck Depression Inventory is frequently used for assessing depression across different cultures. Despite widely application of Beck Depression Inventory, there is surprisingly lack of empirical research on psychometric validation of this scale in Pakistan. In this regard the current study has determined the reliability and validity of Beck Depression Inventory in Pakistan. Methods: Urdu version Beck Depression Inventory was administration to 250 Inpatient and Outpatient Department visitors in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Initially reliability was determined and later on validly analysis was done. Results: The reliability results show that Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.75 to 0.92, whereas inter-item correlations ranged from 0.53 to 0.78. The validity analysis show that factor loadings for all items of Beck Depression Inventory ranged from 0.77 to 0.93. Furthermore, the two subscales presented good model fit indices, thus conforming its construct validity. Conclusion: The results of current study show that Beck Depression Inventory has good psychometric properties followed by its administration to general population in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; therefore this scale could be effectively used for assessing depression in Pakistan 

Full Text:



Waqas A, Raza N, Lodhi HW, Muhammad Z, Jamal M, Rehman A. Psychosocial factors of antenatal anxiety and depression in Pakistan: Is social support a mediator. PloS one. 2015;10(1).

Zehra S, Arif A, Anjum N, Azhar A, Qureshi M. Depression and Anxiety in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from Pakistan. 2014.

Culpepper L. Misdiagnosis of bipolar depression in primary care practices. J Clin Psychiatr 2014;75(3).

Smith MV, Rosenheck RA, Cavaleri MA, Howell HB, Poschman K, Yonkers KA. Screening for and detection of depression, panic disorder, and PTSD in public-sector obstetric clinics. Psychiatric Services. 2014.

Arnau RC, Meagher MW, Norris MP, Bramson R. Psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychol 2001;20(2):112.

Beck, ward, mendelson, mock, erbaugh. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatr 1961;4(1):561–71.

Beck. Cognitive Therapy of Depression: Guilford Press; 1979.

Beck, Steer R, Ball R, Ranieri W. Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories-IA and-II in psychiatric outpatients. J Pers Assess 1996;67(3):588–97.

Fydrich T, Dowdall D, Chambless DL. Reliability and validity of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. J Anxiety Disord 1992;6(1):55–61.

Kjærgaard M, Arfwedson Wang CE, Waterloo K, Jorde R. A study of the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory‐II, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a sample from a healthy population. Scand J Psychol 2014;55(1):83–9.

Brown M, Kaplan C, Jason L. Factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Health Psychol 2012;17(6):799–808.

Morley S, Williams ACdC, Black S. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory in chronic pain. Pain. 2002;99(1):289–98.

Vanheule S, Desmet M, Groenvynck H, Rosseel Y, Fontaine J. The factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory–II: An evaluation. Assessment. 2008.

Kaiser H. An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika. 1974;39(1):31–6.

Ghassemzadeh H, Mojtabai R, Karamghadiri N, Ebrahimkhani N. Psychometric properties of a Persian language version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second edition: BDI PERSIAN. Depression and anxiety. 2005;21(4):185–92.

Grothe KB, Dutton GR, Jones GN, Bodenlos J, Ancona M, Brantley PJ. Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a low-income African American sample of medical outpatients. Psychol Assess 2005;17(1):110.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] []