• Huma Farid Margalla Institute of Heath Sciences, Rawalpindi.
  • Muhammad Saad Shinwari Pakistan Air Force Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Farhan Raza Khan Section of Dentistry, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Farzin Tanwir Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan


Smile is an expression of happiness, self-confidence, kindness and beauty. Along with teeth and lips, gingiva is also a vital component of smile. Melanin induced gingival hyper pigmentation may appear un-aesthetic especially when it is associated with high smile line, upper anterior labial segment and is uneven in appearance. It affects individuals from all races. Generally, it is believed that melanin induced gingival hyper pigmentation is confined to individuals from dark races. But studies have shown that Iranian, Indian, Italian, Arabian, Greek. German, French, Japanese, Chinese, Jewish, Thai, Malaysian and other ethnic groups also display clinical gingival pigmentation.1 Gingival hyper pigmentation may result in psychological distress especially when the appearance is of utmost importance for the individuals. This article aims to focus on the physiology, clinical appearance and treatment options available for the melanin induced gingival hyper pigmentation along with the reported recurrence in the light of current literature.Keywords: Gingival Hyperpigmentation; Physiological pigmentation; Gums; Black gums

Author Biographies

Huma Farid, Margalla Institute of Heath Sciences, Rawalpindi.

Assistant Professor,Operative Dentistry Department, 

Muhammad Saad Shinwari, Pakistan Air Force Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan


Farhan Raza Khan, Section of Dentistry, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

Assistant Professor,Operative Dentistry

Farzin Tanwir, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan

Associate Professor , Director of Postgraduate Studies & Head of Periodontology Department


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