• Muhammad Zuhaid
  • Khalil Khan Zahir
  • Inayat Ullah Diju


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major health issue in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe knowledge and perceptions of diabetes in a sample population of Peshawar. Methods: This crosssectional, descriptive study was carried out in seven different localities of Peshawar. A sample of 305residents were interviewed aged from 15–60 years and above, using a questionnaire specifically designedand translated into Urdu language for convenience of selected subjects. Results: Knowledge of diabeteswas suboptimal. The mean percentages of correct responses to questions regarding three classicalsymptoms and given complications were 47.1% and 30.8%. Excessive sugar intake, obesity, familyhistory, lack of physical activities and stress were acknowledged by 46.2%, 42.3%, 39.3%, 33.4%, and31.8% of the subjects respectively. Presence of family history and level of education were recognised tobe associated with more knowledge. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness of major risk factors andsome complications of diabetes mellitus. Level of education is a significant predictor regardingknowledge of diabetes and its prevention. Prevalence of diabetes has increased in Pakistan.Keywords: Diabetes, Knowledge, Perceptions, Peshawar


Hjelm K, Mufunda E, Nambozi G, Kemp J. Preparing nurses to

face the pandemic of diabetes mellitus: a literature review. J Adv

Nurs 2003;41:424–34.

Sarah Wild, Anders Green, Hilary King. Global prevalence of

diabetes (estimates for the Year 2000 and projections for 2030).

Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047–53.

Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor

F, Bales VS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity related

health risk factors, 2001: JAMA 2003;289(1):76–9.

Rosenbloom A, Young R, Winter W. Emerging epidemic of type

diabetes in youth. Diabetes Care 1999;22:345–54.

WHO ranks Pakistan 7th on diabetes list. The Nation, November

, 2008. Available at:

Hakeem R, Fawwad A. Diabetes in Pakistan: Epidemiology,

Determinants and Prevention. J Diabetol 2010;3:4.

Murugesan N, Snehalatha C, Shobhana R, Roglic

G, Ramachandran A. Awareness about diabetes and its

complications in the general and diabetic population in a city in

southern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;77:433–7.

Al Shafaee MA, Al-Shukaili S, Rizvi SG, Al Farsi Y, Khan

MA, Ganguly SS, et al. Knowledge and perceptions of diabetes

in a semi-urban Omani population. BMC Public Health


Shera AS, Jawad F, Maqsood A. Prevalence of Diabetes in

Pakistan. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;76(2):219–22.

Mohan D, Raj D, Shanthirani CS. Awareness and knowledge

of diabetes in Chenai—the Chenai Urban Rural Epidemiology

Study [CURES-9]. Assoc Physicians India 2005;53:283–7.

Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer

MJ, Willett WC, et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Weight gain,

and Incidence of type 2 Diabetes in Young and Middle-aged

Women. JAMA 2004;292(8):927–34.

Hawthorne K, Tomlinson S. Pakistani Muslims with type 2

diabetes mellitus: effect of sex, literacy skills, known diabetic

complications and place of care on diabetic knowledge, reported

self monitoring management and glycaemic control. Diabet Med


Walter FM, Emery J, Braithwaite D. Lay understanding of

familial risk of common chronic diseases: a systematic review and

synthesis of qualitative research. Ann Fam Med 2004;2:583–94.

De Barr KA. A review of current health education theories.

Californian J Health Promot 2004;2(1):74–87.



Most read articles by the same author(s)