GENOTYPE VARIATION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS IN DISTRICT BUNER SWAT

Authors

  • Khalid Mahmood
  • Noor Mohammad
  • Abidullah Abidullah

Abstract

Objective: To determine the frequency of various genotypes of Hepatitis C virus in District Buner,Swat. Methods: This Descriptive case series study was conducted at District Headquarter HospitalDaggar, and Bilal Medical Trust, Pir Baba, Swat, Pakistan from January 2007 to June 2008. Atotal of 400 patients, 154 Male and 246 Female aged 16–65 years (Mean age 31±13 years) withoutclinical and ultrasonographic evidence of cirrhosis, and with positive Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)antibodies by ELIZA, and HCV RNA detected by PCR were included. Hepatitis C virusgenotypes were checked in serum by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Results: Genotype 3 was the mostcommon type accounting for 61.5% of the study population. Amongst the subtypes, 182 (45.5%)had genotype 3a and 64 (16%) had genotype 3b. Thirty-five (8.7%) patients had genotype 1a, 12(3%) had genotype 1b. Twenty-six (6.5%) patients had genotype 2a. Four (1%) patients hadgenotype 2b. Three (0.75%) patients had genotype 4a, and 1 (0.25%) had genotype 6a. Sixty-four(16%) patients had mixed infections. Forty (10%) patients had genotype 3a and 3b, 12 (3%)patients had genotype 1a, 1b, and 9 (2.25%) patients had genotype 2a and 1c, 2 (0.5%) hadgenotype1a, 3a and 1 patient (0.25%) had genotype1a, 3b. Nine (2.25%) patients had untypablegenotype. Conclusion: Genotype 3 with its subtypes 3a and 3b is the commonest Hepatitis C viruspresent in District Buner, Swat. The others in order of decreasing frequency are genotype 1a, 2aand mixed types.Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, HCV, Genotypes, District Buner

References

Hepatitis C. http://www.WHO>WHO sites>Initiative for

Vaccine Research (IVR) > Infectious diseases.

Zakiullah M. Beware of hepatitis C-the silent epidemic. Med

Today 2005;3(1):26–9.

Simmonds P. Viral heterogeneity of the hepatitis C virus. J

Hepatol 1999;31:54–60.

Pawlotsky JM. Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C. J Hepatol

;31(Suppl 1):71–9.

Naz S, Bhatti A, Khan MS. Emerging molecular approaches and

their significance in the diagnosis and management of hepatitis C

virus infection. Gomal J Med Scienc 2007;5(2):75–80.

Idrees M. Comparison of two typing systems for Genotyping of

Hepatitis C Virus isolates. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak

;11:679–83.

Di Bisceglie AM, Hoofnagle JH. Optimal Therapy of Hepatitis C.

Hepatology 2002;36 (Suppl-1):121–7.

Ohno T, Lau JYN. The “gold-standard”, accuracy, the current

concepts: hepatitis C virus genotypes and viremia. Hepatology

;24:1312–5.

World Health Organization. Global surveillance and control of

hepatitis C. Report of a WHO Consultation organized in

Collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board,

Antwerp, Belgium. J Viral Hepatol 1999;6:35–47.

Houghton M. Hepatitis C viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM,

Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia:

Lippincott-Raven; 1996.p. 1035–58.

Wagner MV, Huber M, Berg T, Hinrichsen H, Rasenack ,

Heintges T, et al. Peginterferon-α-2a (40KD) and Ribavirin for

or 24 weeks in Patients with Genotype 2 or 3 Chronic

Hepatitis C. Gastroenterol 2005;129:522–7.

Mangia A. Short-duration therapy for hepatitis C: suitable for all?

J Viral Hepatol 2007;14:221–7.

Lee SS, Ferenci P. Optimizing outcomes in patents with hepatitis

C virus genotype 1 or 4. Antivir Ther 2008;13(Suppl 1):9–16.

Farooqi JI, Farooqi RJ. Conventional interferon alfa-2b and

riavirin for 12 versus 24 weeks in HCV genotype 2 or 3. J Coll

Physicians Surg Pak 2008;18:620–4.

Idrees M, Riazuddin S. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C

virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and

their possible routes of transmission. BMC Infect Dis 2008;8:69.

Rauf A, Nadeem MS, Ali A, Iqbal M, Mustafa M, Latif MM.

Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in internally displaced persons of

war against terrorism in Swat, Pakistan. Eur J Public Health

;21:638–42.

Hamid S, Umar M, Alam A, Siddiqui A, Qureshi H, Butt J. PSG

consensus statement on management of hepatitis C virus

infection--2003. J Pak Med Assoc 2004;54:146–50.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011;23(4)

http://www.ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/23-4/Khalid.pdf 21

Qazi MA, Fayyaz M, Chaudhry GM, Jamil A, Malik AH,

Gardezi AI, Bukhari MH. Hepatitis C virus Genotypes in

Bahawalpur. Biomedica 2006;22:51–4.

Azhar MA, Bukhari MH, Ghanni U, Khan A, Malik JI, Shah AH.

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and its serotypes in Bahawalpur

Divison. Biomedica 2003;19:18–22.

Ahmad N, Asgher M, Shafique M, Qureshi JA. An evidence of

high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Saudi Med J 2007;28:390–95.

Husain A, Malik FA, Nagra H, Ehsan A, Ahmad Z, Abid M.

Frequency of different HCV genotypes in Faisalabad. Ann

Punjab Med Coll 2009;3(1):19–22.

Hakim ST, Kazmi SU, Bagasra O. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B

and C Genotypes among young apparently healthy females of

Karachi-Pakistan. Libyan J Med 2008;3(2):66–70.

Afridi S, Naeem M, Hussain A, Kakar N, Babar ME, Ahmad J.

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Balochistan.

Mol Biol Rep 2009;36:1511–4.

Singh S, Malhotra V, Sarin SK. Distribution of hepatitis C virus

genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in India.

Indian J Med Res 2004;119:145–8.

Raghuraman S, Shaji RV, Sridaran G, Radhakrishnan S, Chandy

G, Ramakrishna BS et al. Distribution of the different genotypes

of HCV among patients attending a tertiary care hospital in south

India. J Clin Virol 2003;26:61–9.

Cantaloube JF, Gallian P, Attoui H, Baigini P, MiccoPD,

Lamballerie XD. Genotype distribution and molecular

epidemiology of hepatitis C Virus in blood donors from southeast

France. J Clinical Microbiol 2005;43:3624–9.

World Health Organization. Global surveillance and control of

hepatitis C. Report of a WHO Consultation organized in

Collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board,

Antwerp, Belgium. J Viral Hepatol 1999;6:35–47.

Hamid S, Umar M, Alam A, Siddiqui A, Qureshi H, Butt J,

Members of the Consensus Panel PSG consensus statement on

management of Hepatitis C Virus infection. J Pak Med Assoc

;54(3):146–50.

Downloads

Published

2011-12-01