EFFECT OF MATERNAL ANAEMIA ON BIRTH WEIGHT
AbstractBackground: Anaemia is a common medical problem in pregnancy. The extent up to which,maternal anaemia effects maternal and neonatal health is still uncertain. Maternal anaemia iscommonly considered a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW) babies. Some studies havedemonstrated a strong association between low haemoglobin before delivery and LBW babies.However, others have not found a significant association. Therefore, there is insufficient informationto assess the overall adverse impact of anaemia during pregnancy. The aim of this study was todetermine whether maternal anaemia would affect the birth weight of the baby and compare this withthat of non-anaemic mothers. It was a cross-sectional comparative study carried out at the maternityward of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi. Methods: One hundred subjects divided into twogroups each containing 50 subjects on the basis of consecutive non probability sampling wereincluded in the study. Group-A included 50 Anaemic pregnant women and Group-B 50 non-anaemicpregnant women. Information was collected by direct interviewing method through a precodedstructured questionnaire. The Hb level and birth weights were taken from the labour room record.Results: The mean age of the mothers in anaemic group was found to be older than the non anaemicgroup, i.e., (29.44 versus 27.98), though the difference was statistically non significant. The numberof low birth weight infants (64%) was statistically very highly significantly more (p<0.001) in theanaemic group of mothers than the non anaemic group (10%). Conclusion: The results of this studyshow an association of maternal anaemia in pregnancy with increased risk of LBW babies.Keywords: Maternal anaemia, Perinatal outcome, Low birth weight.
World Health Organization. The prevalence of anaemia in
women: a tabulation of available information. 2nd ed. Geneva:
World Health Organization; 1992.
Harris ED. New insights into placental iron transport. Nutr Rev
Karim SA, Khurshid M, Memon AM, Jafarey SN. Anaemia in
pregnancy –its cause in the underprivileged class of Karachi. J
Pak Med Assoc 1994;44:90–2.
Badshah S, Mason L, McKelvie K, Payne R, Lisboa PJG. Risk
factors for low birth weight in the public-hospitals at Peshawar,
NWFP-Pakistan. BMC Public Health 2008;8:197.
Ticconi C, Mapfumo M, Dorrucci M, Naha N, Tarira E,
Pietropolli A, et al. Effect of maternal HIV and malaria infection
on pregnancy and perinatal outcome in Zimbabwe. J Acquir
Immune Defic Syndr 2005;34:289–94.
Borja JB, Adair LS: Assessing the net effect of young maternal
age on birth weight. Am J Hum Biol 2003;15:733–40.
Valero De Bernabé J, Soriano T, Albaladejo R, Juarranz M, Calle
ME, Martínez D, et al. Risk factors for low birth weight: a
review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004;116(1):3–15.
Malhotra M, Sharma JB, Batra S, Sharma S, Murthy NS, Arora
R. Maternal and Perinatal outcome in varying degrees of
anaemia. Int J Gynecol Obstetr 2002;79:93–100.
Khan MM. Effect of maternal anaemia on fetal parameters. J
Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2001;13(2):38–41.
Wannous S, Arous S. Incidence and determinants of low birth
weight in Syrian government hospitals. East Mediterr Health J
Lone FW, Qureshi RN, Emanual F. Maternal anaemia and its
impact on perinatal outcome in a tertiary care hospital in
Pakistan. Trop Med Int Health 2004;4:486–9.
Shazia T, Faheem S, Saad R. Perinatal mortality: a survey. Paki J
Obstet Gynecol 1994;7(2):1–8.
Rana S. Coordinated maternity services. Pak J Obstet Gynecol
Steer P, Alam MA, Wadsworth J, Welch A. Relationship
between maternal hemoglobin concentration and birth weight in
different ethnic groups. BMJ 1995;310:489–91.
Badshah S, Mason L, Mckelvie K, Payne R, Lisboa PJ. Risk
factors for low birth weight in the public hospitals at Peshawar,
NWFP-Pakistan. BMC Public Health 2008;8:197–206.
Mavalankar DV, Gray RH, Trivedi CR. Risk factors for preterm
and term low birth weight in Ahmedabad, India. Int J Epidemiol
Jones DW, Weiss HA, Changalucha JM, Todd J, Gumodoka B,
Bulmer J, et al. Adverse birth outcomes in United Republic of
Tanzania –Impact and prevention of maternal risk factors. Bull
World Health Organ 2007;85:9–18.