CLINICAL STAGE OF ORAL CANCER PATIENTS AT THE TIME OF INITIAL DIAGNOSIS
AbstractBackground: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensuresbetter prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the highmorbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine theclinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study wascarried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed ForcesInstitute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 toDecember 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings,OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liverfunction tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervicallymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statisticallyanalysed using SPSS-17. Results: Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131(39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonlyinvolved site (32 %). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases.Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III(24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Conclusion: Oral cancers are diagnosed late (StageIII and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention.Keywords: Oral Cancer, Clinical Staging, TNM Staging
Chi AC. Epithelial Pathology In: Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen
CM, Bouquot JE. Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. 3rd ed.
Philadelphia: Saunders; 2009.p. 362–452.
Wahid A, Ahmad S, Sajjad M. Pattern of Carcinoma of the Oral
Cavity Reporting at dental Department of Ayub Medical College.
J Ayub Med Coll 2005;17(1):65–6.
Sargern K, Murtomaa H, Safavi SMR, Vehkalahti MM, Teronen
O. Survival after diagnosis of cancer of the oral cavity. Br J Oral
Maxillofac Surg 2008;46:187–91.
Massano J, Regateiro FS, Janua´rio G, Janua´rio A, Oral
squamous cell carcinoma: Review of prognostic and predictive
factors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
Bagan J, Sarrion G, Jimenez Y. Oral cancer: clinical features.
Oral Oncol 2010;46:414–7.
Sciubba JJ. Oral cancer and its detection - History-taking and the
diagnostic phase of management J Am Dent Assoc
Scully C, Bagan JV, Hopper C, Epstein JB. Oral cancer: Current
and future diagnostic techniques Am J Dent 2008;21:199–209.
Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and
oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol 2009;45:309–16.
McLeod NM, Saeed NR, Ali EA. Oral cancer: Delays in referral
and diagnosis persist. Br Dent J 2005;198:681–4.
Brandizzi D, Gandolfo M, Velazco ML, Cabrini RL, Lanfranchi
HE. Clinical features and evolution of oral cancer: a study of 274
cases in Buenos Airs, Argentina. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Buccal
Denoix PF. Bull Inst Nat Hyg (Paris) 1944;1:52–82.
Schroeff MP, Baatenburg de Jong RJ. Staging and prognosis in
head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol 2009;45:356–60.
Araújo-Júnior RF, Barboza CA, Clebis NK, Moura SA, Costa
AL. Prognostic significance of the anatomical location and TNM
clinical classification in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oral
Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2008;13:E344–7.
Macfarlane GJ, Boyle P, Scully C. Oral cancer in Scotland:
changing incidence and mortality. BMJ 1992;305:1121–3.
Chen J, Eisenberg E, Krutchkoff DJ, Katz RV. Changing trends
in oral cancer in the United States, 1935–1985: A Connecticut
study J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991;49:1152–8.
Sherin N, Simi T, Shameena PM, Sudha S. Changing trends in
oral cancer. Indian J Cancer 2008;45:93–6.
Lam L, Logan RM, Luke C. Epidemiological analysis of tongue
cancer in South Australia for the 24-year period, 1977–2001.
Aust Dent J 2006;51:(1):16–2.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.