• Asma Shaukat Department of Pharmacology, Abbottabad International Medical College, Abbottabad
  • Sumbal Tariq Department of Pharmacology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad
  • Mahjabeen Sharif Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi
  • Muzammil Hasan Najmi Department of Pharmacology, Foundation University Medical College, Rawalpindi


Background: The use of b-blockers is limited by adverse effects such as bronchospasm in asthmatics. Third generation b-blockers such as nebivolol may show better tolerability in asthmatic subjects because they lack b-blocker induced bronchoconstriction. Methods: Effects of nebivolol on the tracheal muscle strips prepared from ovalbumin-sensitised guinea pigs of both sexes were studied. Two sets of experiments were designed after dividing the animals randomly into two groups. Using oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit solution as the nutrient medium, the trachealis muscle activity was measured with isometric force displacement transducer and recorded on 4-channel Oscillograph. Result: Nebivolol 10-6 M did not produce significant effect on contractions evoked by histamine in concentrations ranging from 10-7 M to 10-3 M. The mean of amplitude of contraction for different concentrations of histamine were calculated and compared with the group treated with histamine only. Mean of amplitude of contraction, percent responses and percent deviations when compared with the control group were insignificant (p>0.05). Conclusion: Nebivolol did not affect the tone of airway smooth muscle in ovalbumin-sensitised guinea pigs. Nebivolol may be considered safe in patients with airway disease however, further clinical evaluation and exploratory work is required.


Limmroth and Michel MC. The prevention of migraine: a critical review with special emphasis on beta-adrenoceptor blockers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001;52:237–43.

Cazzola M, Noschese P, Amato GD and Matera MG. The Pharmacologic Treatment of Uncomplicated Arterial Hypertension in Patients with Airway Dysfunction. Chest 2002;121(1):230–41.

Parenti A, Filippi S, Amerini S, Granger HJ, Fazzini A, Ledda F. Inositol phosphate metabolism and nitricoxide synthase activity in endothelial cells are involved in the vasorelaxant activity of nebivolol. J. Pharmacol.Exp. Ther. 2000; 292: 698–703.

Negro RD. Pulmonary effects of nebivolol. Ther Adv Cardiovas Dis 2009;3(4):329–34.

De Clerck F, Van Gorp L, Loots W, Janssen PA. Differential effects of nebivolol, atenolol and propranolol on heart rate and on bronchoconstrictor responses to histamine in the guinea-pig. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1989;298:230–6.

D'Agostino B, Gallelli L, Falciani M, Fici F, Mangrella M, Rossi F, Filippelli A. Nebivolol and airway responsiveness in the rabbit. Life Sci 2001;68(18):2159–68.

Brink C, Duncan PG and Douglas JS. The response and sensitivity to histamine of respiratory tissue from normal to ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs: effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxegenase inhibition. J. Pharmacol Exp Ther 1981;217:592–601.

Quang TT, Rozec B, Audigane L and Gauthier C. Investigation of the different adrenoceptor targets of nebivolol enantiomers in rat thoracic aorta. Br J Pharmacol 2009;156:601–8.

Gilani AH, Khan AU, Raoof M, Ghayur MN, Siddiqui BS, Vohra W et al. Gastrointestinal, Selective airway and urinary bladder relaxant effect of Hyoscyamus niger are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Calcium channels. Fund & Clin Pharmacol 2008;22:87–99.

Maffei A, Di Pardo A, Carangi R, Carullo P, Poulet R, Gentile MT et al. Nebivolol induces nitric oxide release in the heart through inducible nitric oxide synthase activation. Hypertension 2007;50:652–6.

Johsson G, Svednyr N, Thiringer G. Effects of intravenous propranolol and metoprolol and their interaction with isoprenaline on pulmonary function, heart rate and blood pressure in asthmatics. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.1975; 8: 175–80.

Cazzola M, Noschese P, Amato MD and Amato GD. Comparison of the effects of single oral doses of nebivolol and celiprolol on airways in patients with mild asthma. Chest 2000;118:1322–26.

Shaukat A, Kazmi S, Shaheen R. In vitro response of tracheal smooth muscle from hyperresponsive guinea pigs to celiprolol. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2012; 24(3-4): 85-86.

Bundkirchen A, Brixius K, Bölck B, Nguyen Q. and Schwinger RHG. β1-adrenoceptor selectivity of nebivolol and bisoprolol. A comparison of [3H]CGP 12.177 and [125I] iodocyanopindolol binding studies. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2003; 460: 19–26.

Hoffman BB. Catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs and adrenergic receptor antagonists. In Goodman and Gillman’s. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Brunton, LL, Lazo JS and Parker KL (Ed). 11th edition, New York, Mc GrawHill. 2006; pp 215–268.

Shaukat A, Nawaz M, Najmi MH, Saeed A. Role of relaxant prostaglandins in the effect of nebivolol on isolated tracheal muscle of guinea pig. Med. Forum 2011; 22(11): 8-12.

Shaukat A, Abrar N, Naureen A,Nawaz M. Role of nitric oxide in the effect of nebivolol on isolated tracheal muscle of guinea pig. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2013;25(1-2): 40-42.