• Muhammad Humayun
  • Zawar Hussain Khichi
  • Haresh Chand
  • Omair Khan
  • Asad ullah


Background: Foul play in cases of hurt and homicide is an established fact. People on basis of enmityfalsely charge their enemies; this practice is carried out globally. The purpose of present study was toknow the situation in the study area and also to know the risk factors which make hindrance inproviding justice in exhumed cases. Methods: The present study was conducted over a period of 3 andhalf years from Jul 2006 to Dec 2009. During the said period total 21 exhumations were carried out inSukkur and Larkana Divisions by the team of Chandka Medical College, Larkana. Cases were studiedin Forensic Medicine Department of Chandka Medical College, Larkana. Out of 21 cases, only 9 caseswere positive (autopsy). In rest of 12 cases, autopsy reports remained undetermined due to advanceddecomposition/putrefaction of corpses. Results: During the study period, total 21 exhumations(autopsies) were carried out in different districts of Larkana and Sukkur divisions. There were 17 malecases and 4 female cases. Cases were divided in to 4 groups on age basis. Group-1 from 0–5 years,Group-2 from 16–30 years, Group-3 from 31–45 years, Group-4 from 46–65 years. The maximumnumber of cases fall in group-2 which are 15 (71.42%) and minimum in group-1 which is 1 (4.76%).Out of 21 cases, only in 9 cases cause of death was ascertained and majority of these were firearminjuries (5, 55.55%), two (22.22%) cases of drowning, one (11.11%) strangulation and one blunttrauma. The success rate remained 42.85%. Nineteen cases were of primary autopsy (First time) onexhumation and 2 cases were secondary (re-examination). Conclusion: The success rate in challengecases depends mostly on the duration of exhumation and soil of cemetery. If a foul play is suspectedthen there should be no unnecessary delay in conduction of exhumation. If exhumation is carried outwithin days after burial, 90% results can be achieved.Keywords: Exhumation, Justice, Victims, Homicide


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