• Ahmed Bilal Waqar
  • Sanaullah Khan
  • Mohammad Idrees


Several novel human RNA viruses were identified in 1995-96 and were partially characterized that apparently can cause acute and chronic hepatitis both in monkeys and humans. These new viruses are related to the flavivirus hepatitis C. It is known to be distinct from other human hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E). Three viruses, identified by investigators at Abbott Labs, have been termed GB-A, GB-B and GB-C. GB-A and GB-B are likely tamarin viruses whereas GB-C infects humans only. All these three viruses are the isolates of the same virus termed HGV, which is positive stranded RNA virus. The genomic sequences of these viruses have been determined by different researchers, which were found to be 1600 nucleotide long. Another group at Genelabs Technologies has identified and determined the complete genomic sequence of a virus they termed hepatitis G virus (HGV). Based on genomic sequence comparisons HGV is probably the same as GB-C. It is a highly controversial virus regarding pathogenecity, mode of transmission and site of replication.


Sack and Etzkorn. Hepatitis virus alphabet: an introduction to hepatitis viruses A through G. Borland: Aroover Art; 2001 pp320-4.

Aikawa T, Sugai Y, Okamoto H. Hepatitis G infection in drug abusers with chronic hepatitis C [letter]. New J Med 1996;334:195-6.

Koff RS. Diseases of the liver. 7th ed. Lippincott (NY): Raven Publishers; 1993.

Linnen J, Wages J Jr, Zhang-Keck ZY, Fry KE, Krawczynski KZ, Alter H, et al. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science 1996;271:505-8.

Alexander IM. Viral hepatitis: primary care diagnosis and management. SpringNet – CE Connection 1998.

Martinot M, Marcellin P, Boyer N, Detmer J, Pouteau M, Castelnau C, et al. Influence of hepatitis G virus infection on the severity of liver disease and response to interferon-alpha in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:874-81.

The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Mobidity and mortality weekly report, recommendation of ACIP. CDC 1991;45:883-4.

Noskin GA. Prevention, diagnosis and management of viral hepatitis. Arch Fam Med 1995;4:923-34.

Masuko K, Mitsui T, Iwana K, Yamazaki C, Okuda K, Meguro T, et al. Infection with hepatitis GB virus C in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. N Eng J Med 1996;334:1485-90.

Anonymous. The Hepatitis G Virus : HGV. Tulane University Med J 1998.

Simons JN, Leary TP, Dawson GJ, Pilot-Matias TJ, Muerhoff AS, Schlauder GG, et al. Isolation of novel virus like sequences associated with human hepatitis. Nat Med 1996;1:565-9.

The Management of viral hepatitis. Proceedings of Canadian Association for Study for the Liver Consensus Conference; 1999 Mar 15-19; Montreal, Quebec.

Fried MW, Khudyakov YE, Smallwood GA, Cong M-E, Nichols B, Diaz E, et al. Hepatitis G virus co-infection in liver transplantation recipients with chronic hepatitis C and nonviral chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1997;25:1271-5.

Seipp S, Wahl R, Mueller H, Stremmel W, Theilmann L Goeser T. Sequence analysis of hepatitis GB virus C isolates from 14 patients. Virus Res 1996;46:81-8.

Strakrle V, Bucek J, Konig J, Pokorny A. The Occurrence of HGV, clinical and histopathological finds, therapy, in patients with suspicion of diagnosed hepatitis. 1998

Stransky J. The discovery of hepatitis G virus. Casopis Lekaru Ceskych 1996;135:99-101.

Laskus T, Radkowski M, Wang LF, Vargas H, and Rakela J. Lack of evidence for hepatitis G virus replication in liver of patients co-infected with hepatitis C and G viruses. J Virol 1997;71:7804-6.

Pessoa MG, Terrault NA, Detmer J, Kolberg J, Collins M, Hassobal HM et al. Quantitation of hepatitis G and C viruses in the liver: evidence that hepatitis G virus is not hepatotropic. Hepatology 1998;27:877-80.

Tanaka E, Alter HJ, Nakatsuji Y, Shih W-K, Kim JP, Matsumoto A et al. Effect of hepatitis G virus infection on chronic hepatitis C. Ann Int Med 1996;125:740-3.

Handa A, Brown KE. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus replicates in human haematopoietic cells and vascular endothelial cells. JGV 2000;81:2461-9.

Cantaloube JF, Gallian P, Biagini P, Attoui H, Escher J, Zappitelli JP, et al. Prevalence of GB virus type C/Hepatitis G virus RNA and Anti E2 among blood donors in south-eastern France. Transfusion 1999;39:95-102.

Marco VD. Long, benign course of hepatitis G virus infection [letters]. Ann Int Med 1997;67:23.

Mushahwar IK, Zuckerman JN. Clinical implication of GB virus C. J Med Vir 1998;56:1-3.

Yoshiba M, Okamoto H, Mishiro S. Detection of the GBV-C hepatitis virus genome in serum from patients with fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology. Lancet 1995;346:1131-2.

Seipp S, Schiedel M, Hofmann WJ, Tox U, Theilmann L, Goeser T et al. Hepatotropism of GB virus C: GBV-C replication in human hepatocytes and cells of human hepatoma cell lines. J Hep 1999;30:570-9.

Karger SAG. GB Virus C/Hepatitis G Virus. Intervirology 1999; 42: 185-195.

DiBisceglie AM. Hepatitis G Virus Infection: A Work in Progress. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996; 125: 772-773.

Heuft HG, Berg T, Schreier E, Kunkel U, Tacke M, Schwella N et al. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of hepatitis G virus infection in blood donors and immunocompromised recepients of HGV – contaminated blood. Vox Sang 1998;74:161-7.

Lin HH, Kao JH, Yeh KY, Liu DP, Chang MH, Chen PJ et al. Mother to infant transmission of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus: the role of high – titred maternal viremia and mode of delivery. J Infect Dis 1998;177:1202-6.

Moaven LD, Tennakoon PS, Bowden DS, Locarnini SA. Mother to baby transmission of hepatitis G virus. Med J Aust 1996;165:84-5.

Hsieh SY, Yang PY, Chen HC, Liaw YF. Cloning and characterization of the extreme 5’ – terminal sequences of the RNA genomes of GB Virus C/HGV. Proc Natl Acad Sci (US) 1997;94(7):3206-10.

Radkowski M, Kubicka J, Kisiel E, Cianciara J, Nowciki M, Rakela J et al. Detection of active hepatitis C virus and hepatitis G virus/GB virus C replication in bone marrow in human subjects. Blood 2000;95:3986-9.

Radkowski M, Wang LF, Cianciara J, Rakela J, Laskus T. Analyisis of hepatitis G virus/GB virus C quasispecies and replication sites in human subjects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;258:296-9.

Laskus T, Radkowski M, Wang L, Vargas H, Rakela J. Detection of hepatitis G virus replication sites by using highly strand-specific Tth-based reverse transcriptase PCR. J Virol 1998;72:3072-5.

Shimizu YK, Hijikata M, Kiyohara T, Kitamura Y, Yoshikura H. Replication of GB virus C (hepatitis G virus) in interferon – resistant Daudi cells. J Virol 1999;73:8411-4

Most read articles by the same author(s)