• M. A. Zahid
  • Rasool Bakhsh
  • Faisal Saud Dar
  • Noor Akhter
  • Zafar Iqbal Malik


Background: This study was conducted in Surgical Unit-I at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from October 2000 to March 2002. The objective of the study was to compare the results of single dose versus three-dose prophylaxis by cefotaxime sodium in patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Method: Intravenous Cefotaxime sodium as a prophylaxis was used in 150 patients who underwent elective cholecystectomy. Half of the patients were given single dose one hour before surgery (Group A) while the other half (Group B) was given three doses, first one hour before surgery, second and third were given at 8 hour interval after surgery. Postoperative hospital stay of all but two patients was not more than three days. Evidence of wound infection was observed for 4 weeks post-operative in surgical out patient department in both groups. Results: Three patients in group A and four in group B got wound infection. The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion:Single preoperative dose can be recommended in cholecystectomy as it is less costly and has the same prophylactic benefits as of single dose.Keywords: Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Cefotaxime


Novelli A. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery: The role of pharmacokinetics. J Chemother 1999;11(6):565-72 .

Simo J, Matis P, Durdik S, Martinec A, Kubis J. Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery. Bratisl Lek Listy 1999;100(12):6944.

Gillespie WJ, Walenkamp G. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fracture. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2): CD000244.

Peled IJ, Dvir G, Berger J, Ramon I, Ullmann Y, Nachlieli T. Prophylactic antibiotics in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Aesthetic Plastic Surg 2000;24(4):299-302.

Hayashi H, Yaginuma Y, Yamashita T, Morizaka A, Ishiya T, Katou Y, Ishikawa M. Prospective randomized study of antibiotic prophylaxis for non laparotomy surgery in benign conditions. Chemotherapy 2000;46(3):213-8.

Wolters U, Schrappe M, Mohrs D, Bollschweiler E, Holscher AH. [Do guidelines bring an improvement in the perioperative course? A study of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Chirurg 2000;71(6):702-6.

McDonald LC, Yu HT, Yin HC, Hsing AC, Ho M. Use and abuse of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in hospitals in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc China 2001;100(1);5-13.

Di Piro JT. Short term prophylaxis in clean-contaminated surgery. J Chemother 1999;11(6):551-5.

Furukawa K, Onda M, Suzuki H, Maruyama H, Akiya Y, Ashiksri M, et al. The usefulness of conducting investigations on intra-abdominal bacterial contamination in digestive tract operations. Surg Today 1999;29(8):701-6.

Le Saux N, Pham B, Moher D. Evaluating the benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections in children: a systematic review. CMAJ 2000 ;63(5):523-9.

Barreca M, Stipa F, Cardi E, Bianchini L, Lucandri G, Randone B. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia: need or habit?] Minerva Chir 2000;55(9):599-605.

Mini E, Nobili S, Periti P. Does surgical prophylaxis with teicoplanin constitute a therapeutic advance? J Chemother 2000 ;40-55.

Hopkins L, Smaill F. Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; (2):CD001136.

Smail F, Hofmeyr GJ. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD00933.

Colizza S, Picconi A, Blasi G, Amaturo A, Picardi B, Cucchiara G. Monitoring of antimicrobial prophylaxis in general surgery. J Chemother 1999;11(6):573-6.

Christiano AP, Hollowell CM, Kim H, Kim J, Patel R, Bales GT, Gerber GS. Double blind randomized comparison of single dose ciprofloxacin versus intravenous cefazolin in patients undergoing out patient endourologic surgery. Urology 2000;55(2):182-5.

Mecchia P. Comparative study of ceftriaxone versus cefazolin plus clindamycin as antibiotic prophylaxis in the elective colorectal surgery. J Chemother 2000;12 suppl 3:5-9.

Esposito S. Is single dose antibiotic prophylaxis sufficient for any surgical procedure? J Chemother 1999;11(6):556-64.

Tocchi A, Lepre L, Costa G, Liotta G, Mazzoni G, Maggiolini F. The need for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized study. Arch-Surg. 2000;135(1):67-70.

Je Wesson PJ, Stiver G, Wail T. Double blinded comparison of cefazolin and ceftriaxone for prophylaxis against infections following elective biliary surgery. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 1996:40:70-4.

Waddel TK, Rostein OD. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. On committee on antimicrobial agents. Can Med Assoc J 1994:151:925-31.

Zahid MA, Nasir A, Malik ZI, Shafique M. Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgical cases. J Surg PIMS 2001:21&22:32-35.

Dellinger EP, Gross PA, Barret TL. Quality standards for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical procedures. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infec Dis 1994:18:422-7.