• Saidul Abrar Health Services Academy,Islamabad.
  • Fahad Saqib Lodhi Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics,School of Public Health,Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Iran.
  • Tauseef Aman Khyber Girls Medical College Peshawar
  • Muhammad Hanif Department of Community Medicine,Quetta Institute of Medical Sciences,Quetta.
  • Nusrat Shujaat Combined Military Hospital Quetta
  • Hamza Abas Gajju Khan Medical College Swabi
  • Wasim Iqbal Mardan Medical Complex,Mardan.


Background: World Health Organization recommends eight antenatal visits throughout pregnancy. Along with full blood count and fasting blood sugar tests, thirty-nine recommendations are given. The objective of this study was to find out significance of difference in haematological profile of pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study on 384 pregnant women attending outpatient department of combined military hospital Quetta, Pakistan, was conducted from 1st November 2017 to 28th February 2018. Simple random sampling technique through random number table was used. Data collected through structured questionnaire from participants and their laboratory reports was grouped trimester wise. Apart from descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test was used to find out significant difference at p≤0.05. SPSS Version 20 and MS Excel 2007 were used for data analysis and plotting graphs. Principles of research ethics were exercised. Results: Mean age (±SD) of the study participants was 27.5 (±4.8) years. Statistically significant difference was found for variables like haemoglobin, haematocrit and MCHC in different trimesters. Only 2 (0.5%) of the total participants had gestational diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: For getting normal reference ranges in our setting, large population-based studies are needed.Keywords: Pregnancy; Red cell indices; Hb; Haematocrit

Author Biographies

Saidul Abrar, Health Services Academy,Islamabad.

PhD Scholar

Tauseef Aman, Khyber Girls Medical College Peshawar

Assistant Professor Community Medicine

Muhammad Hanif, Department of Community Medicine,Quetta Institute of Medical Sciences,Quetta.

Assistant Professor

Nusrat Shujaat, Combined Military Hospital Quetta

FNS Major

Hamza Abas, Gajju Khan Medical College Swabi

Lecturer Community Medicine

Wasim Iqbal, Mardan Medical Complex,Mardan.

Laboratory Technologist


WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2016 [cited 2018 March 8]. Available from:

Dillon R, Harrison C. Full blood count. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2009;70(3):M38–41.

Bbosa GS, Kyegombe DB, Anokbonggo WW, Lubega A, Mugisha A, Ogwal-Okeng J. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013;2(5):528–36.

Balkaya M, Ünsal H, Ünsal C, Kargin F, Dabanoğlu İ. Effects of alcohol and passive smoking on some hematological variables of swiss albino mice. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2005;29(2):241–50.

Chandra S, Tripathi A, Mishra S, Amzarul M, Vaish AK. Physiological changes in hematological parameters during pregnancy. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2012;28(3):144–6.

Akinbami AA, Ajibola SO, Rabiu KA, Adewunmi AA, Dosunmu AO, Adediran A, et al. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. Int J Womens Health 2013;5(1):227–32.

Banhidy F, Acs N, Puho EH, Czeizel AE. Iron deficiency anemia: pregnancy outcomes with or without iron supplementation. Nutrition 2011;27(1):65–72.

Datta D, Datta P. Maternal mortality in india: problems and strategies. Asian J Med Res 2013;2(1):31–5.

Lind T. Hematologic system. Maternal physiology. Washington: CREOG 1985;25:7–40.

DeMayer E, Adiels-Tegman M. Prevalence of anaemia in the world. World Health Satat Q 1998;38(3):302–16.

Irani RA, Xia Y. The functional role of the renin-angiotensin system in pregnancy and preeclampsia. Placenta 2008;29(9):763–71.

Bernstein IM, Ziegler W, Badger GJ. Plasma volume expansion in early pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol 2001;97(5 Pt 1):669–72.

Steer P, Alam MA, Wadsworth J, Welch A. Relation between maternal haemoglobin concentration and birth weight in different ethnic groups. BMJ 1995;310(6978):489–91.

Mohamed AO, Hamza KM, Babker AM. Physiological changes in some hematological and coagulation profile among Sudanese healthy pregnant women. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2016;5(3):525–8.

Akingbola TS, Adewole IF, Adesina OA, Afolabi KA, Fehintola FA, Bamgboye EA, et al. Haematological profile of healthy pregnant women in Ibadan,south-western Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006;26(8):763–9.

James TR, Reid HL, Mullings AM. Are published standards for haematological indices in pregnancy applicable across populations: an evaluation in healthy pregnant Jamaican women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008;8(1):8.

Shen C, Jiang YM, Shi H, Liu JH, Zhou WJ, Dai QK, et al. A prospective, sequential and longitudinal study of haematological profile during normal pregnancy in Chinese women. J Obstet Gynaecol 2010;30(4):357–61.

Purohit G, Shah T, Harsoda JM. Hematological profile of normal pregnant women in Western India. Sch J Appl Med Sci 2015;3:2195–9.

Koivusalo SB, RonoK, Stach-Lempinen B, Eriksson JG. Gestational diabetes mellitus can be prevented by lifestyle intervention: the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL): a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2016;39(8):e126–7.

American Diabetes Association. Management of diabetes in pregnancy. Diabetes Care 2017;40(Suppl 1):S114–9.

Dean A, Sullivan K, Soe M. Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health [Internet]. Open Epi. 2013 [cited 2017 Oct 29]. Available from:

Pregnancy Trimesters - National Library of Medicine - PubMed Health [Internet]. PubMed Health. 2018 [cited 2018 May 14]. Available from:

Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk-NICE Public Health Guideline 38[Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 May 14]. Available from:

Haematology .In: Anwar M, Waqar MA, Khan FA, Tariq WZ, Ahmed S, Mushtaq S, et al (eds). MANUAL OF LABORATORY MEDICNE.3rd ed.Rawalpindi: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology;2005.p.235-303.

Sharma P, Nagar R. Hematological profile of anemic pregnant women attending antenatal hospital. IOSR J Nurs Health Sci 2013;1(4):11–5.

Rodríguez-Dennen F, Martínez-Ocaña J, Kawa-Karasik S, Villanueva-Egan L, Reyes-Paredes N, Flisser A, et al. Comparison of hemodynamic, biochemical and hematological parameters of healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy and the active labor phase. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2011;11:33.

Rayis DA, Ahmed MA, Abdel-Moneim H, Adam I, Lutfi MF. Trimester pattern of change and reference ranges of hematological profile among Sudanese women with normal pregnancy. Clin Pract 2017;7(1):888.

Kumar S, Dubey N, Khare R. Study of changes in red blood cell indices and iron status during three trimesters of pregnancy. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2016;5(10):2062–6.

Chaudhari SJ, Bodat RK. Are there any difference in haematological parameters in pregnant and non-pregnant women? Natl J Community Med 2015;6(2):429–3.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>