• Farhan Zaheer Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Imrana Aziz Dow University of Health Sciences,
  • Sarah Arif Memon Medical Institute
  • Mohammad Omer Khan Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Anosh Aslam Khan Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Muhammad Osama Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Shafaq Naseer Dow University of Health Sciences
  • Mahnoor Yousif Sheikh Dow University of Health Sciences


Background: Stress and burnout have been soaring among doctors. It does not only have deleterious effects during working hours but also impact personal lives of the doctors. The primary focus of this study is to gauge level of burnout among surgical residents working in two major tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was a cross sectional study comprising of 118 candidates who completed the questionnaire based on demographics variables, professional details and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), which scores the burnout level on the basis of three components namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. The duration of study was one month starting from 1st January to 31st January 2019. Residents working in Department of General Surgery were part of inclusion criteria. Consultants and medical students met the exclusion criteria. Data was analysed by SPSS-23. Results: Mean MBI score was 57.15 with mean scores of Emotional Fatigue, Personal Fulfilment and Depersonalization were 22.42, 19.89 and 14.81 respectively. In terms of emotional fatigue, female residents (49.2%) were more likely to suffer than their male counterpart (50.8%) (p=0.018). Married residents (37.3%) tend to have higher mean personal fulfilment scores (p=0.02). Residents who were living alone (31%) have higher mean depersonalization score (p=0.02). With respect to personal factors, higher MBI scores were observed among doctors who were married, worked about 75-90 hours and remain sleep-deprived and those who were not able to sustain their families financially. Conclusion: On the basis of higher MBI scores in married, sleep deprived residents who were working for extensive hours and felt financial constraints, there is an extensive need of comprehensive support groups, humane number of working hours, improved salary packages, de-stressing activities like sports etc. to ameliorate the mental health of resident physicians and enhance their productivity.Keywords: Burnout; Residents; Surgery; Karachi

Author Biographies

Farhan Zaheer, Dow University of Health Sciences

MBBS, FCPS, Associate Professor, Department of General Surgery.

Imrana Aziz, Dow University of Health Sciences,

MBBS, FCPS, Associate Professor, Department of General Surgery.

Sarah Arif, Memon Medical Institute

MBBS, FCPS, Senior Registrar

Mohammad Omer Khan, Dow University of Health Sciences

Student, Dow Medical College.

Anosh Aslam Khan, Dow University of Health Sciences

MBBS, Intern, Department of General Surgery, Dr Ruth K M Pfau Civil Hospital.

Muhammad Osama, Dow University of Health Sciences

MBBS, M.D. , Resident, Department of General Surgery Dr Ruth K M Pfau Civil Hospital.

Shafaq Naseer, Dow University of Health Sciences

MBBS, FCPS, Senior Registrar, Department of General Surgery Dr Ruth K M Pfau Civil Hospital.

Mahnoor Yousif Sheikh, Dow University of Health Sciences

Student. Dow Medical College


Goldhagen BE, Kingsolver K, Stinnett SS, Rosdahl JA. Stress and burnout in residents: impact of mindfulness-based resilience training. Adv Med Educ Pract 2015;6:525–32.

Zubairi AJ, Noordin S. Factors associated with burnout among residents in a developing country. Ann Med Surg 2016;6:60–3.

Thomas NK. Resident burnout. JAMA 2004;292(23):2880–9.

Dyrbye LN, West CP, Satele D, Boone S, Tan L, Sloan J, et al. Burnout among US medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general US population. Acad Med 2014;89(3):443–51.

Prins JT, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Van De Wiel HB, Gazendam-Donofrio SM, Sprangers F, Jaspers FC, et al. Burnout among Dutch medical residents. Int J Behav Med 2007;14(3):119–25.

Ogundipe OA, Olagunju AT, Lasebikan VO, Coker AO. Burnout among doctors in residency training in a tertiary hospital. Asian J Psychiatr 2014;10:27–32.

Williamson K, Lank PM, Cheema N, Hartman N, Lovell EO. Comparing the Maslach Burnout Inventory to Other Well-Being Instruments in Emergency Medicine Residents. J Grad Med Educ 2018;10(5):532–6.

Dwivedi A, Purohit B, Bhambal A. Is Dentistry Turning into Weary Profession? Dimensionality of Experienced Professional Burnout among Dentists in Central India. J Dent Oro Surg 2016;1(5):122.

Mikalauskas A, Širvinskas E, Marchertienė I, Macas A, Samalavičius R, Kinduris Š, et al. Burnout among Lithuanian cardiac surgeons and cardiac anesthesiologists. Medicina (Kaunas) 2012;48(9):478–84.

Shanafelt TD, Boone S, Tan L, Dyrbye LN, Sotile W, Satele D, et al. Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. Arch Intern Med 2012;172(18):1377–85.

O’connor P, Lydon S, O’dea A, Hehir L, Offiah G, Vellinga A, et al. A longitudinal and multicentre study of burnout and error in Irish junior doctors. Postgrad Med J 2017;93(1105):660–4.

Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Rampal KG. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia. ScientificWorldJournal 2013;2013:137620.

Kosan Z, Calikoglu EO, Guraksin A. Levels of burnout and their associated factors among physicians working in Northeast Anatolia. Niger J Clin Pract 2018;21(7):875–81.

Prins JT, Gazendam‐Donofrio SM, Tubben BJ, Van der Heijden FM, Van de Wiel HB, Hoekstra‐Weebers JE. Burnout in medical residents: a review. Med Educ 2007;41(8):788–800.

Ahola K, Honkonen T, Isometsä E, Kalimo R, Nykyri E, Koskinen S, et al. Burnout in the general population. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2006;41(1):11–7.

Sargent MC, Sotile W, Sotile MO, Rubash H, Barrack RL. Stress and coping among orthopaedic surgery residents and faculty. J Bone Jonit Surg Am 2004;86(7):1579–86.

Peckham C. Physician burnout: it just keeps getting worse. Medscape Fam Med 2015;26.

Toker S, Biron M. Job burnout and depression: unraveling their temporal relationship and considering the role of physical activity. J Appl Psychol 2012;97(3):699–710.

Ito JK, Brotheridge CM. Resources, coping strategies, and emotional exhaustion: A conservation of resources perspective. J Vocat Behav 2003;63(3):490–509.

Romani M, Ashkar K. Burnout among physicians. Libyan J Med 2014;9(1):23556.



Most read articles by the same author(s)