• Yasmin Akhtar Khyber Medical college, Peshawar
  • Shah Nawaz Nowshera Medical College Nowshera
  • Muhammad Shabbir Khan Khyber Medical College, Peshawar
  • Syed Hamid Habib Khyber Medical University Peshawar
  • Muhammad Omar Malik Khyber Medical University Peshawar
  • Sadia Fatima Khyber Medical University Peshawar



Background: Adiponectin plays an important role in glucose metabolism and released in response to insulin. It helps to decrease glucose levels and insulin resistance; however, this relation is not been studied in pregnant ladies. Objective was to determine serum adiponectin level and glycaemic status in pregnant women belonging to Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and to find any possible relationship between them. Methods: Hundred pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 100 healthy pregnant women without GDM were randomly selected in a cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, their blood samples were taken for determination of serum adiponectin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). The relationship of adiponectin with glycaemic status was determined with Pearson Correlations coefficient (r). Results: Pregnant women with GDM when compared to healthy pregnant women showed significantly low levels of serum adiponectin (µg/mL) (2.2±0.2 vs. 11.25±4.8, p<0.05) and significantly high level of FBG (mg/dl) (182.7±64.2 vs. 93.6±5.9, p<0.05) and HbA1c (%) (7.4±0.1 vs. 5.4±0.1, p<0.05). Serum adiponectin level showed a statistically significant negative correlation with FBG (r = -0.203, p=0.042) and HbA1c (r = -0.744, p=0.000) in pregnant women with GDM. Conclusion: Serum adiponectin concentration is markedly decreased in pregnant women with GDM which concludes that Hypoadiponectinemia is related with deranged (elevated) glycaemic status in pregnancy. Moreover, adiponectin is associated negatively with FBG and HbA1c in the studied population.


Coelho M, Oliveira T, Fernandes R. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ. Arch Med Sci 2013;9:191–200.

Hou W, Meng X, Zhao A, Zhao W, Pan J, Tang J, et al. Development of multimarker diagnostic models from metabolomics analysis for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Mol Cell Proteomics 2018;17(3):431–41.

Díez JJ, Iglesias P. The role of the novel adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin in human disease. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;148(3):293–300.

Nicholson T, Church C, Baker DJ, Jones SW. The role of adipokines in skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin sensitivity. J Inflamm (Lond) 2018;15:9.

Krause MP, Milne KJ, Hawke TJ. Adiponectin-Consideration for its Role in Skeletal Muscle Health. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20 (7):1528.

Straub LG, Scherer PE. Metabolic Messengers: Adiponection. Nat Metab 2019;1(3):334–9.

Matsuzawa Y. Adiponectin: Identification, physiology and clinical relevance in metabolic and vascular disease. Atheroscler Suppl 2005;6(2):7–14.

Berg AH, Combs TP, Scherer PE. ACRP30/adiponectin: an adipokine regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002;13(2):84–9.

Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Takahashi M, Maeda K, Miyagawa J, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specifc protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;257(1):79–83.

Yang WS, Lee WJ, Funahashi T, Tanaka S, Matsuzawa Y, Chao CL, et al. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Overweight and Obese Asians. Obes Res 2002;10(11):1104–10.

Neville CE, Patterson CC, Linden GJ, Love K, McKinley MC, Kee F, et al. The relationship between adipokines and the onset of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men: The PRIME study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2016;120:24–30.

Scherer PE. Adiponectin: basic and clinical aspects. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;28(1):1–2.

Menzaghi C, Trischitta V. The Adiponectin Paradox for All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality. Diabetes 2018;67(1):12–22.

Gatselis NK, Ntaios G, Makaritsis K, Dalekos GN. Adiponectin: a key playmaker adipocytokine in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Exp Med 2014;14(2):121–31.

Vernini JM, Moreli JB, Costa RA, Negrato CA, Rudge MV, Calderon IM. Maternal adipokines and insulin as biomarkers of pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2016;8(1):68.

Paradisi G, Ianniello F, Tomei C, Bracaglia M, Carducci B, Gualano MR, et al. Longitudinal changes of adiponectin, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes. Gynecol Endocrinol 2010;26:539–45.

Ye R, Scherer PE. Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity? Mol Metab 2013;2:133–41.

Saucedo R, Zarate A, Basurto L, Hernandez M, Puello E, Galvan R, et al. Relationship between circulating adipokines and insulin resistance during pregnancy and postpartum in women with gestational diabetes. Arch Med Res 2011;42:318–23.

Rajagopal L, Ramraj B, Arunachalam S, Raja V, Ganapathy S. Glycated Hemoglobin [HbA1C] As a Dual Marker for Glycaemic Status and Dyslipidemia in Diabetics: A Cross Sectional Analysis of 450 Cases. Indian J Pathol Res Pract 2017;6(2):415–20.

Saini V, Kataria M, Yadav A, Jain A. Role of leptin and adiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus: a study in a North Indian tertiary care hospital. Internet J Med Update 2015;10:11–4.

Meller M, Qiu C, Vadachkoria S, Abetew DF, Luthy DA, Williams MA. Changes in placental adipocytokine gene expression associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res 2006;55:501–12.

Doruk M, Ugur M, Oruc AS, Demirel N, Yildiz Y. Serum adiponectin in gestational diabetes and its relation to pregnancy outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol 2014;34(6):471–5.

Ranheim T, Haugen F, Staff AC, Braekke K, Harsem NK, Drevon CA. Adiponectin is reduced in gestational diabetes mellitus in normal weight women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83:341–7.

Pala HG, Ozalp Y, Yener AS, Gerceklioglu G, Uysal S, Onvural A. Adiponectin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus and in pregnant women without glucose intolerance. Adv Clin Exp Med 2015;24:85–92.

Soheilykhah S, Mohammadi M, Mojibian M, Rahimi-Saghand S, Rashidi M, Hadinedoushan H, et al. Maternal serum adiponectin concentration in gestational diabetes. Gynecol Endocrinol 2009;25(9):593–6.

Xu J, Zhao YH, Chen YP, Yuan XL, Wang J, Zhu H, et al. Maternal circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, and adiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ScientificWorldJournal 2014;4:926932.

Williams MA, Qiu C, Muy-Rivera M, Vadachkoria S, Song T, Luthy DA. Plasma adiponectin concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2306–11.

Tsai PJ, Yu CH, Hsu SP, Lee YH, Huang IT, Ho SC, et al. Maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations at 24 to 31 weeks of gestation: negative association with gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition 2005;21:1095–9.

Retnakaran R, Hanley AJ, Raif N, Connelly PW, Sermer M, Zinman B. Reduced adiponectin concentration in women with gestational diabetes: a potential factor in progression to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27(3):799–800.

Lain KY, Daftary AR, Ness RB, Roberts JM. First trimester adipocytokine concentrations and risk of developing gestational diabetes later in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008;69(3):407–11.

Catalano PM, Hoegh M, Minium J, Huston-Presley L, Bernard S, Kalhan S, et al. Adiponectin in human pregnancy: implications for regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetologia 2006;49(7):1677–85.

Matyjaszek-Matuszek B, Lenart-Lipińska M, Kowalczyk-Bołtuć J, Szlichtyng W, Paszkowski T. Correlation between atherogenic risk and adiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Ann Agric Environ Med 2014;21:143–7.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Minokoshi Y, Ito Y, Waki H, Uchida S, et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med 2002;8(11):1288–95.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>