PROTECTIVE ROLE OF GINGER ON LEAD INDUCED DERANGEMENT IN PLASMA TESTOSTERONE AND LH LEVELS OF MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS
AbstractBackground: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially indeveloping countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger’santioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement inplasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult maleSprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, GroupB received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats fromeach group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels wereanalysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger,serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significantrise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by leadtreatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change.Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats byincreasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic andantioxidant properties.Keywords: Lead toxicity, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, Zingiber officinale, male rats, antioxidant
Meyer PA, Brown MJ, Falk H. Global approach to reducing lead
exposure and poisoning. Mutat Res 2008;659(1-2):166–75.
Kazmi T, Omair A. Control of lead poisoning in Pakistan. J Pak
Med Assoc 2005;55:410–3.
Khan DA, Malik IA, Saleem M, Hashim R, Bashir R. Screening
for chronic lead poisoning in lead factory workers. J Pak Med
Marchlewicza M, Michalskab T, Wiszniewskaa B. Detection of
lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat epididymis by
chemiluminescence. Chemosphere 2004;57:1553–62.
El-Sayed YS, El-Neweshy MS. Impact of lead toxicity on male
rat reproduction at hormonal and histopathological levels.
Toxical Environ Chem 2010;92:765–74.
Biswas NM, Ghosh PK. Protection of adrenal and male gonadal
functions by androgen in lead-treated rats. Kathmandu Uni Med J
Biswas NM, Ghosh PK. Effect of lead on male gonadal activity
in Albino Rats. Kathmandu Uni Med J 2004;2(1):43–6.
Swaran JS. Flora S, Pande M, Mehta A. Beneficial effect of
combined administration of some naturally occurring
antioxidants (vitamins) and thiol chelators in the treatment of
chronic lead intoxication. Chemico-Biologic Interactions
Wang C, Zhanga Y, Lianga J, Shana G, Wanga Y and Shi Q.
Impacts of ascorbic acid and thiamine supplementation at
different concentrations on lead toxicity in testis. Clin Chim Acta
Morakinyo AO, Adeniyi OS, Arikawe AP. Effects of Zingiber
Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male Rat. Afric J
Biomed Res 2008;11(3):329–34.
Chrubasik S, Pittler MH, Roufogalis BD. Zingiberis rhizome. A
comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles.
Min-Ji Bak, Seon Ok, Mira Jun, Woo-Sik Jeong. 6-shogaol-rich
extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems
in cells and mice. Molecules 2012;17(7):8037–55.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011;23(4)
Kamtchouing P, Mbongue Fandio GY, Dimo T, Jatsa HB.
Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and
Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats. Asian J Androl
Sabik LME, Abd El-Rahman Sahar S. Alpha-tocopherol and
ginger are protective on Cyclophosphamide-induced gonadal
toxicity in adult male albino rats. Basic Appl Pathol
Amin A, Alaaeldin A. Hamza, Kambal A, Daoud S. Herbal
extracts counteract cisplatin-mediated cell death in rat testis.
Asian J Androl 2008; 10(2):291–7.
Yousef M, Hassan H, Mohammed A, Kamel K, Khaled F. The
protective role of ginger against di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalateinduced reproductive toxicity and oxidative stress in male rabbits.
Endocrine Abstracts 2012;(29):1037.
Gellert GA, Wagner GA, Maxwell RM, Moore D, Foster L..
Lead Poisoning Among Low-Income Children in Orange
County, California. JAMA 1993;270(1):69–71.
Alhassan A, Mabrouk M, Idris R, Salawu E, Oyerinde A,
Bauchi Z. Aqueous Extract of Juglans Nigra Prevents Lead
Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats. Macedonian J Med Sci
Hamadouche N, Slimani M, Merad-Boudia B, Zaoui C.
Reproductive Toxicity of Lead Acetate in Adult Male Rats. Am J
Sci Res 2009;(3):38–50.
Sokol RZ. The effect of duration of exposure on the expression
of lead toxicity on the male reproductive axis. Am J Androl
Scarano WR1, Messias AG, Oliva1 SU, Klinefelter GR,
Kempinas WG. Sexual behaviour, sperm quantity and quality
after short-term streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia in rats.
Int J Androl 2006;29:482–8.
Allouche L,Hamadouche M, Touabti A. Chronic effects of low
lead levels on sperm quality, gonadotropins and testosterone in
albino rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2009;61(5):503–10.
Sokol RZ, Madding CE, Swerdloff RS. Lead toxicity and the
hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Biol Reprod
Chowdhury AR. Recent Advances in heavy metals induced
effect on male reproductive function. Al Ameen J Med Sc
Hsua P, Guo YL. Antioxidant nutrients and lead toxicity.
Khaki A, Fathiazad F, Nouri M, Khaki AA, Ozanci CC, GhafariNovin M, et al. The effects of Ginger on spermatogenesis and
sperm parameters of rat. Iranian J Reprod Med 2009;7(1):7–12.
Morakinyo AO, Achema PU, Adegoke OA. Effect of Zingiber
officinale (ginger) on sodium arsenite-induced reproductive
toxicity in male rats. Afr J Biomed 2010;13(1):39–45.
Sakr SA, Okdah YA, El-Adly EK. Effect of ginger (Zingiber
officinale) on Mancozeb fungicide induced testicular damage in
albino rats. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2009;3(2):1328–33.