• Khalid Mehmood
  • Zobia Hameed
  • Saleeta Shoukat
  • Fariha Hasan
  • Ali Yawar Alam
  • Abdul Hameed
  • Abdul Nadir


Background: The association between dyspepsia, H. pylori and psychological distress has remained atopic of intense debate over the past several decades. In Pakistan, where depression is highly prevalentand dyspepsia is possibly present in a high percentage of population, little data exist about thesecommon health problems. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and predictors ofdepression among patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms in the Gastrointestinal (GI) Clinic of atertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-nine consecutive patients wereenrolled in the study based on their presenting symptoms in the GI clinic at Shifa International Hospital,Islamabad. Subjects with prior history of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gallstones and HCV infectionswere excluded from the study. Demographic and socioeconomic variables as well as dyspepticsymptoms and important causes of dyspeptic symptoms were recorded. Depression was analysed basedon the Urdu version of Beck’s Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The data were analysed using SPSS-10 for univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Mild depression was associated with lowereducation status (p<0.001), lesser income (p<0.018), and lower socioeconomic status (p<0.009) as wellas rural residence (p<0.026). Smoking, alcohol-use, H. pylori infection, gender and dyspepsia were notfound to have any association with depression. On multivariate analysis, education and income groupremained significantly associated with mild depression. Clinically significant depression was found tobe associated with lower education and rural residence. Conclusion: Depression among dyspepticpatients was found to be associated with socioeconomic status rather than dyspeptic symptoms orimportant risk factors associated with dyspeptic symptoms.Keywords: Depression, H. pylori, dyspeptic symptoms, education, income


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