NOSOCOMIAL UROPATHOGENS AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERNS IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL TEACHING HOSPITAL IN RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
AbstractBackground: Nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) are by definition not present atadmission of a patient and are acquired during hospitalisation. The objective of this study was tostudy the uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in hospital acquired urinary tractinfections presenting in a teaching hospital. Methodology: It was a retrospective descriptivestudy carried out at the Department of Pathology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi,Pakistan, during the year 2009. Reports of urine culture and sensitivity performed during oneyear were retrospectively studied with a view to document various isolates and theirantimicrobial sensitivity. Results: Out of a total number of 1204 urine cultures submitted, 246were found to have nosocomial urinary tract infections. Over all prevalence of nosocomialurinary tract infection in the examined reports was 20.43%. Conclusion: Nosocomial Urinarytract infections are common. Gram negative bacilli are most frequent uropathogens and areresistant to commonly used antibiotics. Fosfomycin followed by Gentamycin and Cefotaximewere the most effective antibiotics.Keywords: uropathogens, antibiotics, urine, culture, sensitivity
Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC
definition for nosocomial infections. American journal of
infection control 1988;16:128–40.
Stamm WF. Catheter associated urinary tract infections:
Epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention. Am J Med
;91(Suppl 3 B):655–715.
Warren JW. Catheter associated urinary tract infections. Infect
Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:609–22.
Davies HD, Jones EL, Sheng RY, Leslie B, Mathlow AG, Gold
R. Nosocomial urinary tract infection at a pediatric hospital. The
Pediatr Inf Dis J 1992;11:349–54.
Khan S, Ahmed A. Uropathogens and their susceptibility
patterns; A retrospective analysis. J Pak Med Assoc
Sharma S. Current understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in
UTIs. Ann Natl Acad Med Sci 1997;33(1):31–8.
Nelson DA, Differentiating prostate disorders. J Am Acad Nurs
Stark RP, Maki DG. Bacteriuria in a catheterized patient. N Eng J
Gruneberg GN, Antibiotic sensitivities of urinary pathogens;
–1982. J Antimicrob Chemother 1984;14:17–23.
Farrell DJ, Morrissey I, De Rubies D, Robbins M, Felmingham
D. A UK Multicentre study of the antimicrobial susceptibility of
bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infection. J Infect
Gupta V, Yadav A, Joshi RM. Antibiotic resistance pattern in
uropathogens. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002;20:96–8.
Kunin CM, Douthitt S, Dancing J, Anderson J, Moeschberger M.
the association between the use of urinary catheters and
morbidity and mortality among elderly patients in nursing home.
Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:291–301 .
Stark RP, Maki DG. Bacteriuria in catheterized patient. N Eng J
Med 1984;311:560–4 .
Ashkenzie S, Tov SE, Samra Z, Dinari G. uropathogens of
various childhood populations and their antibiotic susceptibility.
The Pediatr Inf Dis J 1991;10:742–6.
Grunberg RN. Changes in the antibiotic sensitivities of urinary
pathogens. 1971–1989. J Antimicrob Chemother 1990;26:3–11.