FREQUENCY OF DEPRESSION IN EPILEPSY: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY
AbstractBackground: Depression is the most frequent psychiatric morbidity among epileptic patientsadversely affecting their quality of life. It has also been associated with deliberate self harm andsuicide. The objectives of this study were to know the frequency of depression in epileptic patientscoming to neurology clinic of tertiary care hospital and also to find an association of clinical anddemographic variables of epileptic patients with depression. Methods: Convenient samplingmethod was used to select patients after informed consent. Depression was diagnosed using semistructured interview based on ICD-10. Data was analyses using SPSS version 10.0, and analysiscarried out using descriptive and inferential statistics. Chi-square test of association was applied tosee the significance. Result: Out of total 100 patients 55% were males, 47% were married andmean age of the patients was 25.5±4.34 years. About 60% patients were found depressed at thetime of interview. Male patients, being married and coming from low socioeconomic stratum weresignificantly associated with depression. None of the patient was on anti-depressant medication.Conclusion: Depression was found to be highly prevalent psychiatric morbidity in epilepticpatients. Men, married status, uncontrolled epilepsy and low socioeconomic group more prone tohave depression.Keywords: Depression, Epilepsy, Suicide
Lewis AJ. Melacholia: a historical review. J Ment Sci
Barrowclough B. Suicide and epilepsy. In: Reynolds FH,
Trimble MR. Editors. Epilepsy and psychiatry. Edinburgh:
Kanner AM, Nieto JC. Depressive disorder in epilepsy.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2009;21(2)
Goldstein LH. Effectiveness of psychological interventions
for people with poorly controlled epilepsy. J Neurol
Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:137–42.
Blumer D. Postictal depression: significance for the
neurobehavioral disorder of epilepsy. J Epilepsy 1992;5:214–9.
L.S Boylan, Flint, Labovitz, Jackson. Depression but not
seizure frequency predicts quality of life in treatmentresistant epilepsy. Neurology 2004;62:258–61.
Aziz H, Guvener A, Akhtar SW, Hasan KZ. Comparative
epidemiology of epilepsy in Pakistan and Turkey populationbased studies using identical protocols. Epilepsia
Aziz H, Akhtar SW, Hasan KZ. Depression and epilepsy:
how closely related are they? Neurology 2002;58:S27–39.
Mendez MF, Doss RC, Taylor JL, Salguero P. Depression in
epilepsy. Relationship to seizures and anticonvulsant therapy.
J Nerv Ment Dis 1993;181:444–7.
Thompson PI, Oxley J. Socioeconomic accompaniment of
severe epilepsy. Epilepsia 1988; 29 Suppl I:S9–18.
Falconer MA, Serafetinides EA. A follow-up study of
surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neural Neurosurg
Morrell MJ. Sexuality in Epilepsy. In: Engel J, Pedley TA,
eds. Epilepsy. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers;
Septien L, Grass P, Giroud M, Didi-Roy R, Brunotte
F, Pelletier JL, et al. Depression and temporal lobe epilepsy:
the possible role of laterality of the epileptic foci and gender.
Neuiuphysiol Clin 1993;23:327–36.
Hawton K, Fagg J, Marsack P. Association between epilepsy
and attempted suicide. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
Sander JW AS, Duncan JS. Vigabatrin. In: Shorvon 5,
Dreifuss F, Fish D, Thomas T, eds. The treatment of
epilepsy. Oxford: Blackwell Science;1996:491–9.
Ziegler RG Epilepsy Behav. Behavioral and emotional
correlates of epilepsy in adolescence 2002;3(6):558–60.
Brown SW, McGowan MEL, Reynolds EH. The influence of
seizure type and medication on psychiatric symptoms in
epileptic Patients. Br J Psychiatry 1986;148:300–4.
Sackheim HA, Decina P, Prohvnik I. Anticonvulsant and
antidepressant properties of electroconvulsive therapy. A
proposed mechanism of action. Biol Psychiatry