• Abdus Salam Khan
  • Fayaz Qureshi
  • Arif Hussain Shah
  • Salman Akbar Malik


Background: This study was carried out to investigate the country wise distribution of malarial parasite in Muslim pilgrims. Methods: This study was conducted at Ajyad Hospital, Makkah Al-Mukarmah, Saudi Arabia during peak Hajj season, from February to March 2000. The peripheral blood smears for malarial parasites were examined from one hundred and thirty patients suspected to be suffering from malaria. Results:  A positive identification of malarial parasite was possible in 19.2%. Seventy-six percent patients were suffering from Plasmodium falciparum infection, while 24% had Plasmodium vivax infection. Fifty percent of patients from Sudan and Saudi Arabia had P. vivax malaria while in the rest of the countries only P. falciparum infection was found. The patients presented with protean clinical manifestations. Conclusions:  Malaria is prevalent in many Muslim countries and the frequency of falciparum species seems to increase as compared to vivax malaria. The majority of falciparum malaria patients develop haematological complications.Key Words:  Muslim countries, pilgrims, malaria, plasmodia, hemolysis


Gilles HM. The malarial parasite. In Bruce Shwatts Essential Malariology. 3rd Ed. Edward Arnold, London, 1993, pp 13-19.

Ruth NZ, Carole LA. Malaria vaccine, multiple targets. Science 1994;265:1381-83.

Khan AS, Malik SA. Tumour Necrosis Factor in Falciparum malaria. Annals of Saudi Medicine 1996;16:609-614.

Khan AS, Malik SA. Falciparum malaria an experience with 100 cases. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 1995;7:11-15.

Malik MG, Seidi O, El-Taher, Mohammed AS. Clinical aspects of malaria in Asir region of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine 1998;18: 15-18.

Phillips RE, Gilles HM. Malaria. Medicine International Quarterly 1988; 2: 220-225.

Gruss HJ, Dietrich M, Kern P, Hammer CJ, Dammo JV. Elevated tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 serum levels as markers for complicated falciparum malaria. Am J Med 1989;7:139-143.

Shaffer N, Grau GE, Hedberd K, Davachi F, Dinch PN. Tumor necrosis factor in severe malaria. J Inf Dis 1991; 163: 96-101.

Shofield L, Vivas L, Hackett F, Gerold P, Tachado S. Signal transduction in host cells by a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol toxin of malarial parasite. Annals Trop Med Parasitol 1993; 87: 617-627.

Kwiatkowski D. Malaria toxins and the regulation of parasite density. Parasitology Today1995;11: 206-210.

Francis N, Warrel DA. Pathology of human malaria in Bruce Shwatts Essential Malariology. 3rd Ed. Edward Arnold, London 1993; pp: 52-53.