EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RISK FACTORS AND COMPOSITION OF URINARY STONES IN RIYADH SAUDI ARABIA
AbstractBackground: The purpose of this study was to perform the chemical analysis of stones to know the pattern of biochemical composition of stones and to determine epidemiological risk factors for stone formation in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Methods: 307 renal stones were analyzed during one year period from September 2000 to August 2001. These stones were sent to central lab Riyadh for analysis from different hospitals attached to this region. The stones were analyzed by semiquantitative method. The kits supplied by Maascia Bruneli SPA. (Italy) was used for chemical analysis of stones. The powered stones and standards both were analyzed for uric acid, cystine, oxalate, carbonate, phosphate, ammonia, calcium and magnesium contents. Results: Male to female ratio was 5:1. The stone frequency was 2.5 times more in Saudis as compared to non-Saudis. Maximum number of stones were analyzed in peak summer months. Calcium oxalate stones were the commonest followed by uric acid and phosphate stones. No cystine stone was found in the series analyzed. Conclusion: From the study of epidemiological factors it seems that the Saudis are more prone to development of stones. A clear stone season seems to exist in the area corresponding to the summer months. The relative increased frequency of stones in the region indicates that nutritional, environmental and genetic factors play a role in the occurrence of stones.Keywords: urinary stones, composition, epidemiology
Rennke H. Urolethiasis. In: Cotran RS, Kumar V, Collins T, Eds. Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. 6th ed., Philadelphia WB. Saunders company, 1999: 989-90.
Scheriner GF, Renal Calculi In : Kissane JM Ed. Anderson Pathology: 9th ed., New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers, 1991;840-41.
Jager P. Genetic versus environmental factors in renal stone disease. Curr opinn Nephrol Hyperten. 1996: 5342-46.
Beeler MF, Zeith DA, Morris RH, Biskin GR. Calculus semiquantitative tests on composition of urinary calculi analysis. Am J Clinical Pathology 1964;41-55.
Ramello A, Vital C. Marangella M. Eqidemiology of Nephrolithiasis. J Nephrol 2000:138 Suppl 3:545-50.
Alhadramy MS. A retrospective study on urolithiasis. J Pak Med Assoc 1997;11(47):281-4.
Paul C, Timothy B, Boone IF. Principles of surgery: 6th Ed. New York, Tokyo, London McGraw hill 1994:1743-52
Abdul-Haleem RE, Al-Sibaai A , Baghlafao AO. Ionic associations with in 460 non-infection urinary stones. Quantitative chemical analytic study, applying a new classification. Scand J urol Nephrol 1993;27(2):155-62.
Al-Rasheed SA; Elfaqish SR, Hussain I, Almugerin Mm. The etiological and clinical pattern of childhood urolithiasis in Saudi Arabia. International Urology Nephrol 1995;27(4):349-55.
Kambal A, Wahab EM, Khattab AH. Composition of Urinary stones in Sudan. Br J Urol 1979;51(5):342-4.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.