• Muhammad Ismail
  • Muhammad Zahoor Janjua


Background: The objective of this study was to observe the ocular teratogenic effects of alcohol on the third generation in albino rats. Methods: This study was carried out at department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC Karachi from 1996-98. 36 pregnant female rats were divided into a treated and a control group (18 in each). The gestation period of albino rats is between 21-23 days (7 days trimester). Treated group was injected 25% alcohol (ethanol) intraperitonealy in a dose of 0.03 ml/gm body weight, while the control group was treated with normal saline in the same dose by same route. This intervention was done on 8th,9th and 10th gestational day. The first generation (n=115) was crossbred to get second generation (n=104) that was then used to produce the third generation (n=95). Generations of control rats were developed parallel. No treatment was given to the subsequent generations of treated or control groups. Results: Ocular defects (micro/macrophthalmia, cataract, coreanl opacity etc.) were observed in 30% (39/115) of the first generation, 40.38% (42/104) of the second generation and 45.26% (43/95) of 3rd generation of ethanol treated group. No ocular defect was observed in the three generations of controls. Conclusion: Alcohol exposure caused ocular defects in three generations of exposed rats. There is a need to study subsequent generations of rats for further penetranceand to develop cohort study in humans.   KEY WORDS: Alcohol, Ocular defects, pregnancy, genetic defects.


William HP, Moyer TP. Clinical toxicology. In: Tietz text book of clinical Chemistry. Philadelpia, WB Saunders, 1994:1155.

Stromland K. Ocular involvement in the foetal alcohol syndrome. Surv Opthalmol 1987;31:277-8.

Kaufman MH. Ethanol-induced chromosomal abnormalities at conception Nature 1983;307:258-60.

West JR, Chen WA, Pantazis NJ. Foetal alcohol syndrome: The vulnerability of the developing brain and possible mechanisms of damage. Metabolic Brain Dis 1994; 9(4):291-322.

Riley EP, Hannigan JH, Hannigan MAB. Behavioural teratology as the study of early brain damage: Considerations for the assessment of neonates. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1985;7:635-8.

Padmanabhan R. Is exencephaly the forerunner of anencephaly. Acta Anat 1991;141:182-2

Abel EL, Chen WJA, West JR. The effect of timing and duration of alcohol exposure on development of the foetal brain. In: Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. New York, CRC Press Inc 1996:27-50.

Battie CN, Freter M. Cardiac mitochondrial abnormalities in a mouse model of the foetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoh Clin Expt Res 1988;12(2):264-7.

Davis WL, Crawford LA, Cooper OJ, Farmer GR, Thomas DL, Freeman BL. Ethanol induces the generation of reactive free radicals by neural crest cells in-vitro. J Gran Gen Dev Biol 1990;10:277-9.

Dilts PV. Placental transfer of ethanol. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1971;107:1195-8.

Rough R. Reproductive system. In: The Mouse. 2nd ed. Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing Co, 1968.

Padmanabhan R, Pallot DJ. Asprin-alochol interaction in the production of cleft palate and limb malformation into the mouse. Teratol 1995;51:404-17.

Smith RS, Rodrick TH, Sundberg JP. Microphthalmia and Associated Abnormalities in inbred Black Mice. Lab Animal Med 1994;44:551-60.

Clayton RM, Campbell JC. Small eye, a mutant in the house mouse apparently affecting the synthesis of extracellular membran. J Hered 1968;38:381-4.

Tamarin RH. Sex determination, sex linkage, and pedigree analysis in principles of genetics. 4th edition. London Wm.C.Brown Publishers 1993.

Halmesmaki E, Valimaki M, Roine R, Ylikahri R, Ylikorkal O. Maternal and paternal alcohol consumption in miscarriage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989;96:188-91.

Lemoine P, Harrousseau H, Borteyru JP, Menuet JC. Les enfants de parents alcooliques: anomalies observees: apropos de 127 cas. Quest Med 1968;25:476-82.

Hannigan JH, Abel EL, Cruger ML. Population, characteristics of birth weight in an animal model of alcohol related developmental effects. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1993;15:97-105.

Jones KI, Smith DW, Christy NU, Streissguth AP. Pattern of malformation in off-spring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet 1973;7815(1):1267-71.

Chaudhuri JD. Unusual Clinical Features of Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. JIMA 2002:100(2).

Soltes BA, Anderson R, Radwanska E. Morphologic changes in off-spring of female mice exposed to ethanol before conception. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:1158-62.

Most read articles by the same author(s)