• Mohammad Munir Noor Women medical college
  • Quratulann Nazir Gynae ATH
  • Tariq Mehmood Khan
  • Saima Gillani Paeds ATH
  • Munir Ahmad Abbasi Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Abdur Rauf Medicine, ATH
  • Zaheer Uddin Qureshi Surgery, ATH


 Background: Magnesium serves as a cofactor for various oxidation reactions in the body and helps in glucose transport across cell membrane. Deficiency of magnesium is a common electrolyte abnormality in type 2 diabetic patients and is linked to development of various diabetic complications. This study was conducted to determine the association between low serum magnesium level and type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting at Medical B ward, BBS Hospital Abbottabad. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted over a period of 6 months starting July 1, 2017. One hundred & eighty diagnosed diabetic patients aged at least 40 years, were included in the study. Their serum magnesium level was checked after withdrawing blood under strict aseptic conditions. Fasting & random blood glucose and the level of glycosylated haemoglobin were measured and age, gender, duration of illness were recorded on a proforma. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (33.89%) had hypomagnesemia. There was no significant association between hypomagnesemia and age and sex of patients (p>0.05). However, hypomagnesemia was found to be significantly associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus among study population (p=0.02). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is frequently present in patients with diabetes mellitus and it appears that its   prevalence increases with the duration of diabetes mellitus.Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Serum Magnesium levels; electrolyte disturbance; HbA1C

Author Biographies

Mohammad Munir Noor, Women medical college

Associate professor medical B ward wmc

Quratulann Nazir, Gynae ATH

Gynae ATH

Saima Gillani, Paeds ATH

Paeds ATH

Munir Ahmad Abbasi, Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Classified Pulmonologist,Fauji Foundation HospitalRawalpindi, Pakistan

Abdur Rauf, Medicine, ATH

Medicine, ATH

Zaheer Uddin Qureshi, Surgery, ATH

Surgery, ATH


Voma C, Romani AMP. Role of Magnesium in the Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis. In: Szablewski L, editor. Glucose Homeostasis [Internet]. InTech; 2014 [cited 2018 Jan 20]. Available from:

Musso CG. Magnesium metabolism in health and disease. Int Urol Nephrol 2009;41(2):357–62.

Villegas R, Gao YT, Dai Q, Yang G, Cai H, Li H, et al. Dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(4):1059–67.

Lima M de L, Cruz T, Rodrigues LE, Bomfim O, Melo J, Correia R, et al. Serum and intracellular magnesium deficiency in patients with metabolic syndrome--evidences for its relation to insulin resistance. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009;83(2):257–62.

Nair A, Hocher B, Pfab T, Konrad M, van Zeeland F, Bindels R, et al. Two Genetic Variants of TRPM6 Increase Risk for Hypomagnesemia Associated with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Biophysic J 2011;100(3):87a.

Mahalle N, Garg MK, Kulkarni MV, Naik SS. Relation of magnesium with insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in subjects with known Coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2014;5(1):22.

Sakaguchi Y, Shoji T, Hayashi T, Suzuki A, Shimizu M, Mitsumoto K, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a novel predictor of end-stage renal disease. Diabetes Care 2012;35(7):1591–7.

Siddiqui MU, Ali I, Zakariya M, Asghar SP, Ahmed MR, Ibrahim GH. Frequency of hypomagnesemia in patients with uncontrolled type ii diabetes mellitus. Pak Armed Forces Med J 2016;66(6):845–50.

Lecube A, Baena-Fustegueras JA, Fort JM, Pelegrí D, Hernández C, Simó R. Diabetes is the main factor accounting for hypomagnesemia in obese subjects. PLoS One 2012;7(1):e30599.

Lee CT, Lien YH, Lai LW, Chen JB, Lin CR, Chen HC. Increased renal calcium and magnesium transporter abundance in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int 2006;69(10):1786–91.

Groenestege WMT, Hoenderop JG, van den Heuvel L, Knoers N, Bindels RJ. The epithelial Mg2+ channel transient receptor potential melastatin 6 is regulated by dietary Mg2+ content and estrogens. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17(4):1035–43.

Pham PCT, Pham PMT, Pham SV, Miller JM, Pham PTT. Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2(2):366–73.

Pham PCT, Pham PMT, Pham PA, Pham SV, Pham HV, Miller JM, et al. Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with more rapid decline of renal function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Clin Nephrol 2005;63(6):429–36.

Van Dam RM, Hu FB, Rosenberg L, Krishnan S, Palmer JR. Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. Diabetes Care 2006;29(10):2238–43.

Bo S, Pisu E. Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Curr Opin Lipidol 2008;19(1):50–6.

McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, Lauritzen E, Faber O, Binder C, et al. Hypomagnesaemia - a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 1978;27(11):1075–7.

Sales CH, Pedrosa Lde F. Magnesium and diabetes mellitus: their relation. Clin Nutr 2006;25(4):554–62.

Shaikh MK, Devrajani BR, Soomro AA, Ali Shah SZ, Devrajani T, Das T. Hypomagnesemia in Patients with Diabetes mellitus. World Appl Sci J 2011;12(10):1803–6.

Hasan M, Sultan S, Ashfaq S, Irfan SM. Hypomagnesemia in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients; An Experience From a Tertiary Care Center. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci 2017:13(2);144–8.

Wälti MK, Zimmermann MB, Spinas GA, Hurrell RF. Low plasma magnesium in type 2 diabetes. Swiss Med Wkly 2003;133(19-20):289–92.

Whang R, Oei TO, Aikawa JK, Watanabe A, Vannatta J, Fryer A, Markanich M. Predictors of clinical hypomagnesemia. Hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144(9):1794–6.

Hayes JP, Ryan MF, Brazil N, Riordan TO, Walsh JB, Coakley D. Serum hypomagnesaemia in an elderly day-hospital population. Ir Med J 1989;82(3):117–9.

Ryzen E. Magnesium homeostasis in critically ill patients. Magnesium 1989;8(3-4):201–12.

Noronha JL, Matuschak GM. Magnesium in critical illness: metabolism, assessment, and treatment. Intensive Care Med 2002;28(6):667–79.

Chernow B, Bamberger S, Stoiko M, Vadnais M, Mills S, Hoellerich V, et al. Hypomagnesemia in patients in postoperative intensive care. Chest 1989;95(2):391–7.

Wälti MK, Zimmermann MB, Spinas GA, Jacob S, Hurrell RF. Dietary magnesium intake in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56(5):409–14.

McNair P, Christensen MS, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, Transbøl I. Renal hypomagnesaemia in human diabetes mellitus: its relation to glucose homeostasis. Eur J Clin Invest 1982;12(1):81–5.

Schlienger JL, Grunenberger F, Maier EA, Simon C, Chabrier G, Leroy MJ. Disorders of plasma trace elements in diabetes. Relation to blood glucose equilibrium. Presse Med 1988;17(21):1076–9.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>