• Muhammad Asif Military Hospital Rawalpindi
  • Raheel Ahmed Istitute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad, Peshawar
  • Tanveer Ahmed Istitute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad, Peshawar
  • Zia Uddin Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar
  • Muhammad Zahid Nowshehra Medical College Nowshehra
  • Izzat Ullah Pak Emirates Military Hospital Rawalpindi


Background: Patients undergoing haemodialysis are at increased risk for acquiring infections like hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. This is due to their underlying impaired cellular immunity and exposure to contaminated equipment, frequent blood transfusions, hospitalization and surgery. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Hepatitis B and C in patients undergoing haemodialysis in tertiary care hospitals. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in dialysis units of three tertiary care hospitals, from January to August 2018. Data regarding demographics and hepatitis status was collected from patients and hospital records through a structured questionnaire. Categorical variables were shown in percentages and Chi square test was used to see association between hepatitis status and age, gender and duration of dialysis. Results: Of the total 521 patients, 318 (61%) were males. Mean age of participants was 44.98±16.51 years and mean duration since initiation of HD 19.74 months. Of the total, 150 (28.8%) were hepatitis C positive, 28 (5.4%) were hepatitis B positive and 18 (3.4%) having hepatitis B and C co–infection. Duration since initiation of dialysis was associated with hepatitis (p<0.001). Percentage of hepatitis was higher in males compared to females but statistically not significant. Conclusion: The frequency of hepatitis in our haemodialysis units is alarmingly high and significantly associated with duration since initiation of haemodialysis.Keywords: ESRD; Haemodialysis; Hepatitis C; Hepatitis B and Prevalence

Author Biographies

Muhammad Asif, Military Hospital Rawalpindi

FCPS Consultant Gastroenterologist

Raheel Ahmed, Istitute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad, Peshawar

Post graduate Resident, Department of Nephrology.

Tanveer Ahmed, Istitute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad, Peshawar

Post graduate Resident, Department of Nephrology.

Zia Uddin, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar

Post graduate Resident, Department of Nephrology.

Muhammad Zahid, Nowshehra Medical College Nowshehra

Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology.

Izzat Ullah, Pak Emirates Military Hospital Rawalpindi

Registrar, Department of Gastroenterology.


Afzal A, Ashraf S, Raheel A, Chattah FS, Zafar F, Zafar A, et al. Haemodialysis; Awareness and Care Needed to Prevent Hepatitis C Infection in Haemodialysis Patients. Professional Med J 2017;24(11):1610–4.

Ibrahim MET, Elawady MA. Hepatitis C Virus Seroconversion among Hemodialysis Patients and the Role of Hepatitis C Virus Positive Patient's Isolation in Benha, Egypt. Clin Med Res 2017;6(1):31–6.

Khan S, Attaullah S, Ali I, Ayaz S, Naseemullah, Khan SN, et al. Rising burden of Hepatitis C Virus in hemodialysis patients. J Virol 2011;8:438.

Petruzziello A, Marigliano S, Loquercio G, Cozzolino A, Cacciapuoti C. Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: An Up-Date of the Distribution and Circulation of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes. World J Gastroenterol 2016;22(34):7824–40.

Mohamed AA, Elbedewy TA, El-Serafy M, El Toukhy N, Ahmed W, Din ZAE. Hepatitis C virus: A global view. World J Hepatol 2015;7(26):2676–80.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JE. Robbins and Cotran Pathological Basis of Disease. Vol 2. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015.

Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Shearer KR, Razavi H. Global Epidemiology and Genotype Distribution of the Hepatitis C Virus Infection. J Hepatol 2014;61(1):S45–57.

Polaris Observatory Collaborators. Global prevalence, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in 2016: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018;3(6):383–403.

MacLachlan JH, Cowie BC. Hepatitis B Virus Epidemiology. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2015;5(5):a0214410.

Qureshi H, Bile KM, Jooma R, Alam SE, Afrid HUR. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral Infections in Pakistan: Findings of a National Survey Appealing for Effective Prevention and Control Measures. East Mediterr Health J 2010;16:15–23.

Fissell RB, Bragg-Gresham JL, Woods JD, Jadoul M, Gillespie B, Hedderwick SA, et al. Patterns of hepatitis C prevalence and seroconversion in hemodialysis units from three continents: the DOPPS. Kidney Int 2004;65(6):2335–42.

Ahmed HA, Yassinea YS, Tawafea AR, Ebazaway MM. Epidemiological study of patients on regular haemodialysis at the Kafer El-Shakh Governorate, Egypt. Menoufia Med J 2015;28(2):267–71.

Ashkani-Esfahani S, Alavian SM, Salehi-Marzijarani M. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among hemodialysis patients in the Middle-East: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2017;23(1):151–66.

Afifi A. The Egyptian Renal Registry. The 9th annual report for the year 2008 Published on 29th Annual congress of nephrology of Egyptian Society of Nephrology and Transplantation ESNT Hurghada Egypt 2009.

Idrees MK, Batool S, Ahmed E. Hepatitis B virus among maintenance haemodialysis patients: A report from Karachi, Pakistan. JPMA 2011;61(12):1210–14.

Anwar K, Imran M, Shahzad F, Noreen M, Atif M, Ahmad F, et al. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infection among Patients Undergoing Dialysis. J Hum Virol Retrovirol 2016;3(3):00094.

Malhotra R, Soin D, Grover P, Galhotra S, Khutan H, Kaur N. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in hemodialysis patients: A retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital of North India. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2016;7(1):72–4.

Prakash S, Jain A, Sankhwar SN, Usman K, Prasad N, Saha D, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B & C viruses among patients on hemodialysis in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Clin Epidemiol Global Health 2014;2(1):19–23.

Tajbakhsh R. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections among Hemodialysis Patients in Karaj, Iran. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2015;26(4):792–6.

Johnson DW, Dent H, Yao Q, Tranaeus A, Huang CC, Han DS, et al. Frequencies of hepatitis B and C infections among haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in Asia-Pacific countries: Analysis of registry data. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009;24(5):1598–603.

Finelli L, Miller JT, Tokars JI, Alter MJ, Arduino MJ. National surveillance of dialysis‐associated diseases in the United States, 2002. Semin Dial 2005;18(1):52–61.

Somi MH, Etemadi J, Ghojazadeh M, Farmhand S, Faramarzi M, Foroutan S, et al. Risk factors of HCV seroconversion in hemodialysis patients in Tabriz, Iran. Hepat Mon 2014;14(6):e17417.

Soliman AR, Abd-Elaziz MM, El-Lawindi MI. Evaluation of an isolation program of hepatitis C virus infected hemodialysis patients in some hemodialysis centers in Egypt. ISRN Nephrol 2013;2013:395467.

Zahran AM. Prevalence of seroconversion of hepatitis C virus among hemodialysis patients in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Arab J Nephrol Transplant 2014;7(2):133–5.

Liu YB, Xie JZ, Zhong CJ, Liu K. Hepatitis C virus infection among hemodialysis patients in Asia: a meta-analysis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014;18(21):3174–82.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>