CAUSATIVE BACTERIA AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN NEONATAL SEPSIS
AbstractBackground: Neonatal sepsis is characterised by bacteraemia and clinical symptoms caused bymicroorganisms and their toxic products. Gram negative bacteria are the commonest causes of neonatalSepsis. The resistance to the commonly used antibiotics is alarmingly high. The major reason foremerging resistance against antibiotics is that doctors often do not take blood cultures before startingantibiotics. We have carried out this study to find out various bacteria causing neonatal sepsis and theirsusceptibility to antibiotics for better management of neonatal sepsis. Methods: A total of 130 neonateswith sepsis who were found to be blood culture positive were taken in this study. Culture/sensitivitywas done, isolated organisms identified and their sensitivity/resistance was noted against differentantibiotics. Data were arranged in terms of frequencies and percentage. Results: Out of 130 cultureproven cases of neonatal sepsis, gram negative bacteria were found in 71 (54.6%) cases and grampositive bacteria in 59 (45.4%) cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria found in35 (26.9%) cases followed by Escherichia coli in 30 (23.1%) cases. Acinetobacter species,Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebseila, Streptococci, Enterobacter cloacae and Morexella species werefound in 17 (13.1%), 17 (13.1%), 13 (10%), 7 (5.4%), 6 (4.6%), and 5 (3.8%) cases respectively. Inmost of the cases causative organisms were found to be resistant to commonly used antibiotics likeampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone (77.7%, 81.5%, 63.1%, and 66.9% respectively).There was comparatively less (56.9%) resistance to ceftazidime. Gentamicin had resistance in 55.1%cases, while amikacin and tobramycin had relatively less resistance (17.4% and 34.8% casesrespectively). Quinolones and imipenem had relatively less resistance. Vancomycin was found to beeffective in 100% cases of Staphylococcus group. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus are the mostcommon gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli are the most common gram negative bacteriacausing neonatal sepsis. Resistance to commonly used antibiotics is alarmingly increasing. Continuedsurveillance is mandatory to assess the resistance pattern at a certain level.Keywords: Neonatal sepsis, bacterial isolates, Antibiotic susceptibility, Drug resistance, gram-positive,gram-negative
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