OESOPHAGEAL CANCER IN NORTHERN AREAS OF PAKISTAN
AbstractBackground: Oesophageal carcinoma is the leading cause of death from cancers. Most of theoesophageal carcinomas are either squamous cell carcinomas or adeno-carcinomas. The cervicaloesophagus is an uncommon site of the disease. There is an increase of 15–20 percent mortalityrate over the past two to three decades, during which time the histologic pattern of the diseasehas also changed significantly. Objective: The objective of this study was to see the incidence ofoesophageal carcinoma in different sex and age groups, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan.Method: This was a retrospective study over a period of 7 years which was designed to assess ageand sex incidence for oesophageal carcinoma in Northern Areas of Pakistan. A total of 69 alreadydiagnosed carcinomas of the oesophagus were included in the study, all these cases were fromMalakand Division of Northern Pakistan. All specimens were stained and examined microscopy.The demography of the disease and type of carcinoma were evaluated. Results: Out of 69diagnosed cases of oesophageal carcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma was the found in 64(92.5%) while adenocarcinoma was seen in 5 (7.5%) cases. Out of 64 squamous cell carcinomas,moderately differentiated carcinomas were the most common 34 (49.2%). Conclusion: Most ofthe oesophageal carcinomas were squamous cell carcinomas and were mostly biopsied from thelower 1/3rd of the oesophagus. The mean age of patients was 42 years in males (M) and 53 yearsin females (F). F:M was 1:3. All patient presented in advanced stage with dysphagic symptoms.No in situ or mucosal carcinoma was identified in this study. Radiological assessment alsoshowed late stages of the disease.Keyword: Oesophageal carcinoma, incidence, type, demography
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