• Munir Ahmad Abbasi Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital Abbottabad.
  • Aamir Nazir Department of Physiology, Ayub Medical College Abbottabad-Pakistan
  • Sadaf Anwar Qureshi Department of Pathology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottbad-Pakistan
  • Nadia Haleem Department of Biochemistry, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad-Pakistan
  • Naheed Khattak Department of Biochemistry, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar-Pakistan
  • Muhammad Adnan Rashid Department of Community Medicine, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad-Pakistan
  • Saima Iltaf Asst Prof ,Department of Gynae, Abbottabad International Medical Complex



Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Iron Deficiency, Non-Anaemic Iron Deficiency (NAID), COPD Exacerbations, Exercise Capacity in COPD, COPD Management Strategies.


Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a global health challenge with significant morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency, including non-anaemic iron deficiency (NAID), has been identified as a potential comorbid in COPD, affecting patient outcomes and disease severity. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and impact of iron deficiency on the severity and clinical outcomes in COPD patients. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 289 individuals diagnosed with COPD were enrolled and underwent comprehensive medical assessments, including haematological tests and spirometry from December 2019 to December 2023. The study focused on measuring iron levels, exercise capacity, and exacerbation frequency, comparing iron-deficient and non-iron-deficient groups. Results: The study found that 46.7% of participants had iron deficiency. Those with iron deficiency showed significantly lower exercise capacity as measured by the six-minute walk distance and experienced a higher frequency of yearly COPD exacerbations. However, no significant differences were observed in airflow limitation and the overall quality of life between the iron-deficient and non-iron-deficient groups. Conclusion: The findings suggest that iron deficiency, particularly NAID, is associated with a more severe progression of COPD, characterized by reduced exercise capacity and increased exacerbation frequency. These results highlight the importance of considering iron deficiency in the management of COPD to potentially improve patient outcomes. Keywords: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); Iron Deficiency; Non-Anaemic Iron Deficiency (NAID); COPD Exacerbations; Exercise Capacity in COPD; COPD Management Strategies

Author Biographies

Munir Ahmad Abbasi, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital Abbottabad.

District Chest / TB Specialist,Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching HospitalAbbottabad.

Aamir Nazir, Department of Physiology, Ayub Medical College Abbottabad-Pakistan


Sadaf Anwar Qureshi, Department of Pathology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottbad-Pakistan


Nadia Haleem, Department of Biochemistry, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad-Pakistan


Naheed Khattak, Department of Biochemistry, Khyber Medical College, Peshawar-Pakistan


Muhammad Adnan Rashid, Department of Community Medicine, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad-Pakistan


Saima Iltaf, Asst Prof ,Department of Gynae, Abbottabad International Medical Complex

Department of Gynae, Abbottabad International Medical Complex


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