SERUM TRACE ELEMENTS IN DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST MALIGNANCY
AbstractBackground: Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease globally. The absolute risk of breastcancer increases with age and is higher in postmenopausal women. This study tried to find out role ofserum trace elements (cadmium, cobalt, copper and zinc) and biomarkers in diagnosis of breastmalignancy. Methods: Levels of serum trace elements were estimated by atomic absorptionspectrophotometry in serum samples of 23 breast cancer patients of stage III. Analysis of proteinpattern was observed by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results: Inmenstruating women, the mean serum level of cadmium, copper and cobalt were significantly loweredas compared to control, however, zinc showed no significant difference. In premenopausal andpostmenopausal women, the mean serum level of cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc was decreasedsignificantly in patients as compared to controls (p<0.001). The ratio of Cu/Zn was also decreased inpatients when compared to controls. Three major peptide bands with molecular weights of 33 kDa, 52kDa and 185 kDa appeared in these samples when subjected to SDS PAGE. Conclusions: Serum traceelements are significantly lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. The exact mechanismresponsible for the alterations in trace element levels in patients with breast cancer is unclear andrequires further evaluation. Gel electrophoresis may be important to find out breast cancer markers thatmay help in diagnosing the disease and response to treatment.Keywords: Metals, Breast Cancer, Protein Markers
Burson MA, Soliman AS, Ngoma TA, Mwaiselage J, Ogweyo P,
Eissa MS., et al. Clinical and epidemiologic profile of breast
cancer in Tanzania. Breast Disease. 2010;31(1):33–41.
Kakarala M, Rozek L, Cote M, Liyanage S, Brenner DE. Breast
cancer histology and receptor status characterization in Asian
Indian and Pakistani women in the U.S. -a SEER analysis. BMC
Rehman F, Nagi AH, Hussain M. Immunohistochemical
expression and correlation of mammaglobin with the grading
system of breast carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol.
Ko AH, Dollinger M, Rosenbaum EH. Everyone’s guide to
cancer therapy. (Rev; 5th Eds.). USA: Andrew Mcmeel
Ng EYK, Sree SV, Ng KH, Kaw G. The use of tissue electrical
characteristics for breast cancer detection: a perspective review.
Technology in cancer research and treatment. 2008;7(4):295–
Murali KC, Jacob K, Stanly M, Lakhmi R, Maheedhar K,
KalyanKK, et al. Raman spectroscopy of breast tissue. Expert’s
view of molecular diagnosiss. 2008;8(2):149–156.
Gudjonsson T, Jessen L, Villadsen R, Rank F, Bissell MJ,
Petersen OW. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells
differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells
for polarity and basement membrane deposition. J Cell Sci.
Provenzano PP, Inman RD, Eliceiri KW, Knittel JG, Yan L,
Rueden CT, et al. Collagen density promotes mammary tumor
initiation and progression. BMC Med 2008;6:11.
Martin MB, Reiter R, Pham T, Avellanet YR, Camara J, Lahm
M, et al. Estrogen-like activity of metals in MCF-7 breast cancer
cells. Endocrinology 2003;144:2425–36.
Siddiqui MK, Jyoti SS, Mehrotra PK, Singh K, Sarangi R.
Comparison of some trace elements concentration in blood,
tumor free breast and tumor tissues of women with benign and
malignant breast lesions, an Indian study. Environ Int
Majumder S, Chatterjee S, Pal S, Biswas J, Efferth T, Choudhuri
SK. The role of copper in drug-resistant murine and human
tumors. Biometals. 2009;22:377–84.
Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the
assembly of the head bacteriophage T4. Nature
Ionescu JG, Novotny J, Stejskal V, Lätsch A, Blaurock-Busch E,
Eisenmann-Klein M. Increased levels of transition metals in
breast cancer tissue. Neuro Endocrinol Let 2006;27(1):36–9.
Cui Y, Vogt S, Olson N, Glass AG, Rohan TE. Levels of zinc,
selenium, calcium, and iron in benign breast tissue and risk of
subsequent breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and
Saleh F, Behbehani A, Asfar S, Khan I, Ibrahim G. Abnormal
blood levels of trace elements and metals, DNA damage, and
breast cancer in the state of Kuwait. Biol Trace Elem Res
Rana SV. Metals and apoptosis: recent developments. J Trace
Elem Med Biol 2008;22:262–84.
Schrauzer GN. Interactive effects of selenium and chromium on
mammary tumor development and growth in MMTV-infected
female mice and their relevance to human cancer. Biol Trace
Elem Res 2006;109:281–92.
Silvera SA, Rohan TE. Trace elements and cancer risk: a review
of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes and Control
Klaudia B. Lysosomal Proteases: Revival of the sleeping beauty.
In: Saftig P (Ed). Lysosomes. New York: Springer; 2005.p. 50–9
Sedelies KA, Sayers TJ, Edwards KM, Chen W, Pellicci DG,
Godfre, DI, et al. Discordant regulation of granzyme H and
granzyme B expression in human lymphocytes. J Biol Chem.
Beaujouin M, Prébois C, Derocq D, Matha VL, Masson O,
Pattingre S, et al. Pro-cathepsin D interacts with the extracellular
domain of the chain of LRP1 and promotes LRP1- dependent
fibroblast outgrowth. J Cell Sci 2010;123:3336–46.
Foekens JA, Look MP, Vries JB, Gelder ME, Putten WL, Klijn
JG. Cathepsin-D in primary breast cancer: prognostic evaluation
involving 2810 patients. Br J Cancer 1999;79:300–7.
Moelans CB, Weger RA, Ezendam C, Diest PJ. HER-
/neuamplification testing in breast cancer by Multiplex Ligationdependent Probe Amplification: influence of manual- and laser
microdissection. BMC Cancer 2009;9:4.
Owens MA, Horten BC, Da Silva MM. HER2 amplification
ratios by fluorescence in situ hybridization and correlation with
immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 6556 breast cancer tissues.
Clin Breast Cancer 2004;5(1):63–9.
Ross JS, Fletcher JA, Bloom KJ, Linette GP, Stec J, Symmans
WF, et al. Targeted therapy in breast cancer: the HER-2/neu gene
and protein. Mol Cell Proteomics 2004;3:379–98.
Florea AM, Büsselberg D. Metals and Breast Cancer: Risk
Factors or Healing Agents? J Toxicol 2011;