• Atiya Mahboob
  • Zafar Iqbal
  • Rabil Javed
  • Azeem Taj
  • Asma Munir
  • Munir Akhtar Saleemi


Background: Dengue fever is a mosquito born viral disease. It occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areasof the world. Symptoms appear 3−14 days after the infective bite. Mortality can occur in denguehemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome unless prompt and adequate management is provided.Objective: To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics along with outcome ofpatients with dengue fever (DF) dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Design: Prospective, follow-up study. Place and duration of study: Department of Medicine, ShaikhZayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore from 3rd Oct 2010 to 20th Nov 2010. Patientsand Methods: Specific serological tests for dengue fever were done in all 60 patients admitted withsuspected diagnosis of DF, DHF and DSS. Forty-eight confirmed cases were evaluated for age, gender,clinical features and outcome of the disease. Results: Forty-eight out of 60 patients had positiveserology for dengue fever. Male to female ratio was 1.09:1. Their ages ranged from 5 years to 68 yearswith the mean of 31.5±15.2 years. DF, DHF and DSS were found in 71%, 19% and 10% casesrespectively. Common presentations were fever (100%), skin rash (83.33%), myalgia (69.75%),restlessness (66.67%) and rigors and chills (66.67%). All, except one patient improved clinically. Onepatient died on second day of admission. Conclusion: Dengue fever, a viral infection is re-emerging asa serious public health problem. Fever, rash, myalgia with rigors and chills were common presentingfeatures.Keywords: Dengue fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, skin rash, epidemic


Holmes EC, Twiddy SS. The origin, emergence and evolutionary

genetics of dengue virus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 3

(2003) 19-28.

Dengue: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and

control, 2009.


Gubler DJ. Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a

public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century.

TRENDS in Microbiology 2002;10(2)

Ahmed S, Arif F, Yahya Y, Rehman A, Abbas K, Ashraf S, et al.

Dengue fever outbreak in Karachi 2006−A study profie and

outcome of chidren in 15 years of age. J Pak Med Assoc


Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Dengue.

Retrieved from

Ahmed S, Ali N, Ashraf S, Ilyas M, Tariq WU, Chotani RA.

Dengue fever outbreak: a clinical management experience. J Coll

Physicians Surg Pak 2008;18(1):8−12.

Gubler DJ. Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever: history and

current status. Novartis Found Symp 2006; discussion


Akram DS, Ahmad S. Dengue Fever. Infect Dis J


Hayes CG, Baqar S, Ahmad T, Chowdhry MA, Reisen WK.

West Nile virus in Pakistan. Seroepidemiological studies in

Punjab Province. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1982;76:431−6.

World health organsiation. Dengue Hemorhagic Fever:

Diagnosis Treatment, Prevention and Control. 2nd edition

Geneva, World Health Organisation, 1997.

Khan E, Kisat M, Khan N, Nasir A, Ayub S, Hasan R.

Demographic and Clinical Features of Dengue Fever in Pakistan

from 2003–2007: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS

One 2010;5(9):e12505.

Kumar A, Rao CR, Pandit V, Shetty S, Bammigatti C,

Samarasinghe CM. Clinical Manifestations and Trend of Dengue

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010;22(4) 123

Cases Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Udupi District,

Karnataka. Indian J Community Med 2010;35(3):386–90.

Lee MS, Hwang KP, Chen TC, Lu PL, Chen TP. Clinical

characteristics of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a

medical center of southern Taiwan during the 2002 epidemic. J

Microbiol Immunol Infect 2006;39(2):121−9.

Wasay M, Channa R, Jumani M, Zafar A. Changing patterns and

outcome of Dengue infection; report from a tertiary care hospital

in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2008;58:488−9.

Itoda I, Masuda G, Suganuma A, Imamura A, Ajisawa A,

Yamada K, et al. Clinical features of 62 imported cases of

dengue fever in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006;75(3):470−4.

Thomas EA, John M and Bhatia A. Cutaneous manifestation of

dengue viral infection in Punjab (North India). Int J Dermatol


Hanafusa S, Chanyasanha C, Sujirarat D, Khuankhunsathid I,

Yaguchi A, Suzuki T. Clinical features and differences between

child and adult dengue infections in Rayong Province, Southeast

Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health


Shah I, Deshpande GC, Tardeja PN. Outbreak of Dengue in

Mumbai and Predictive Markers of dengue Shock Syndrome. J

Trop Pediatr 2004;50:301–5.

Chandralekha, Gupta P, Trikha A. The north Indian dengue

outbreak 2006: a retrospective analysis of intensive care units

admissions in a tertiary care hospital. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg



Melino S, Paci M. Progress for dengue virus diseases towards the

NS2B–NS3pro inhibition for a therapeutic-based Approach.

FEBS J 2007;274(12):2986−3002.



Most read articles by the same author(s)