COMPARISON OF POPULATION SURVEY OF MULTAN ABOUT CIGARETTE SMOKING WITH SURVEY OF ABBOTTABAD
AbstractBackground: There are different pollutions in the environment e.g. Water pollution, dust pollution, pollen pollution, noise pollution and smoking pollution. As smoking from different sources is a pollution and injurious to health therefore we decided to conduct epidemiological study of smoking in Multan. Methods: The study was carried out on 1100 subjects residing in different localities of Multan. A specifically designed questionnaire was filled and the responses computed. The results were then compared with similar survey conducted in Abbottabad and reported earlier. Results: Out of the study population 40.02% were found to be smoking different kinds of tobacco. Out of 442 smoking persons 36.66% are smoking for just company while 57.01% for anxiety and remaining for other reasons. 20-40 cigarettes of different brands per day are used by different occupation persons. The expenditure for cigarette smoking is in the range of Rs. 300–2000 per month. Among smoking persons 292 (66.06 %) complained of Nocturnal cough, 96 (21.72%) during day and 54 (12.22 %) at both time. 125 smokers (28.28 %) complained of sputum, while 43 subjects (9.73 %) complained of occasional or frequent blood stained sputum. 24 (5.43 %) smokers reported of symptoms or diagnosis of Ischeamic heart disease. 35 smokers (7.92 %) smoke during fasting of Holy Ramadan. 290 smokers (65.61 %) do not hesitate to smoke at public places
Janes Df, Timens W, Karan J, Rijcken B, Postma DS. (A) symptomatic bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma, Respair Med, 1997;91: 121-34
XU X, Rijken B. Schouten JP, Weiss ST, Airway responsiveness and development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms in adults, Lancet 1997;350:1431 – 34.
Hopp RJ, Townley RG, Biven RE, Bewtra AK, Nair NM. The presence of airway reactivity before the development of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;141:2-8.
Postma DS,Rijcken B. The role of atopy and hyperresponsiveness in the development of COPD, Eur Respir Rev 1997;7:159-62.
Villar MTA, Dow L, Coggon D, Lampe FC, Holgate ST. The influence of increased bronchial responsiveness, atopy, and serum IgE on decline in FEV. A longitudinal study in the eldery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:656 – 62.
Annesi I, Neukirch F, Orvoen-Frija E, et al. The relevance of hyperresponsiveness but not of atopy to FEV, decline. Preliminary results in a working population. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1987;23:397 –400.
Rijcken B, Schouten Jp, XU X, Rosner B, Weiss ST. Airway. hyperresponsiveness to histamine associated with accelerated declinein FEV., Am J Respir Crit care Med 1995 ;151:1377 – 82.
Parker DR, O’Connor GT, Sparrow D, Segal MR, Weiss St. The relationship of nonspecific airway responsiveness and atopy to the rate of decline of lung function. The Normative Aging study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;141:589- 94.
Postma DS, Wempe JB, Renkema TEJ, Van der Mark TW, Koeter Gh. Hypereesponsiveness as determinant of the outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. . Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;143:1458- 62.
Sparrow D, O’Connor G, Colton T, Barry Cl, Weiss ST,. The relationship of nonspecific bronchial responsiveness to the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and decreased levels of pulmonary function; the Normative aging Study. Am Rev Respir Dis, 1987;135:1255-60.
Beaty TH, Newill CA, Cohen BH, Tockman MS, Bryant SH, Spurgeon HA. Effects of pulmonary function on mortality. J Chron Dis 1985;38:703-10.
Freund KM, Belanger AJ, D’Agostineo RB, Kannel WB. The health risks of smoking. The Framingham study:34 years of follow-up. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:417-24.
Kozlowski LT, Goldberg ME, Yost, Ehite EL, Swney CT, Pillitteri JL. Smokers misperceptions of light and ultra light cigarettes may keep them smoking. Am J Prev. Med 1998:15:9-16.
Warner Ke, Slade J. Low tar, high toll. Am J Public Health 1992;82:17 – 18.
Royal College of Physicians. Nicotine addiction in Britain. A report of the Tobacco Advisory committee of the Royal college of Physicians. London Royal College of physicians, 2000.
Henningfield JE, Kozlowski LT, Benowitz NL, a proposal to develop meaningful labeling for cigarettes. JAMA 1994;272:312-14.
Peto R. Lopez A. Boreham J. Thu M.Heath C. Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Lancet 1992 :339:1268 – 78.
Doll R. Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking, 20 years observations on male British doctors, BMJ 1976, ii;1525 – 36.
Doll R. Peto R. Wheatley K, Grey R, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking; 40 years observation on male British doctors. BMJ 1994:309:901-11.
Russell MAH, Wilson C, Taylor C, Baker CD. Effect of general practitioner’s advice against smoking. BMJ.1979;2:231- 235
Cummings SR, Stein MJ, Hansen B, Richard RJ, Gerbert B, Coates TJ. Smoking counseling and preventive medicine: a survey of internists in private practice and a health maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:345-349
Thorndike A.N, Rigotti N.A, Stafford R.S, Singer D.E, Boston, Mass. National patterns in the treatment of smokers by physicians. JAMA 1998;25:604 – 608.
Anda RF, Remington PL, Sienko DG, Davis RM. Are physicians advising smokers to quit? The patients perspective. JAMA.1987;257:1916-1919
Frank E, Winkleby MA, Altman DG, Rockhill B,Fortmann SP. Predictors of physicians smoking cessation advice. JAMA.1991;266: 3139-3144
Orleans CT, George LK, Houpt JL, Brodie KH. Health promotion in primary care: a survey of US family practitioners. Prev Med. 1985;14:636-647
Jaleel M.A, Noreen R, Hamid A et al. An Epidemiological study of smoking at Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2001; 13 : 34-36
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.