• Muhammad Jan
  • Muhammad Azhar Mughal
  • Ramesh Kumar Tanwani
  • Kausar Aamir
  • Mehar Ali


Background: This study was conducted to observe the effect of H2-receptor antagonist Ranitidine and calcium channel blocker Verapamil on the volume, free and total acidity of carbachol induced gastric secretion. Methods: Twenty four albino rats of Sprangue Dawley strain weighing 150-200 grams were used. Animals were divided into Four groups. After fasting for 48 hours, pylorus of each animal was ligated, verapamil 10mg/Kg, ranitidine 0.5 mg/Kg and carbachol  600 µg/Kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally. Results: It was observed that ranitidine significantly reduced both the volume and acidity (p‹0.001). Similarly Verapamil also significantly reduced the volume, free and total acidity when compared to carbachol alone. When verapamil was used in combination with ranitidine 15 minutes before carbachol, there was further inhibition of volume and acidity as compared to ranitidine alone. This reduction was statistically highly significant (p‹0.001). Conclusion:  Our study suggests that combined therapy of verapamil and ranitidine may have clinical usefulness in the management of severe peptic ulcer and Zollinger Ellison Syndrome.Keywords: Verapamil, Raniditine, Carbachol, Gastric Secretion


Edward CRW, Bouchier IAD, Haslett C. Diseases of the stomach. In: Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine, London, Churchill Livingstone, 1995, pp. 425-34

Fleckenstein A. History of calcium antagonists. Cir Res 1983;52(1):3-16

Barraras RF. Calcium and gastric secretion. Gastroenterology 1973;64:1168-84.

Anderson JR. In: Muir’s textbook of pathology. 6th ed. English Language Book Society/Edward Arnold, 1985,19.18-19.26.

Basso N, Materia A, Folini A, Jaffre BM. Prostaglandin generation in the gastric mucosa of rats with stress ulcer. Surgery 1983;94:104-8.

Passaro EJR, Basso N, Walsh JH. Calcium challenge in Zollinger Ellison Syndrom. Surgery 1972;72:60-67.

Nandi J, King RL, Kaplan DS, Leven RA. Mechanism of gastric proton pump inhibition by calcium channel antagonists. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 1990;252(3):1102-7.

Vischier FE, Seay PH, Tazelaar AP, VeldkampJr W, Brook MJ. Pharmacology of famine bromide. J Phamacol Expt Ther 1945;110:188-204

Varley H. Test of gastric functions, occult blood. In: Practical Clinical biochemistry, London, Willium Meinmann, 1962, pp. 249-277

Shamburk RD, Schubert ML. Control of gastric acid secretion. Gastroenterol. Clin. North America 1992;21(3):527-50

Domschke W, Lux G, Domschke S. Furan H2-antagonist ranitidine inhibits pentagastrin stimulated gastric secretion stronger than cimitidine. Gastroentrol 1980;79:1267-71

Garric T, Goto Y, Buaccck S, Guth P. Cimitidine and ranitidine protect against cold restraint induced ulceration in rats by suppressing gastric acid secretion. Dig Dis Sci 1987;32:1261-7.

Daly MJ, Humphray MH, Stables R. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in dogs By H2-rweceptor antagonists, ranitidine, cimitidine and metamide. Gut 1980;21:408-12.

Brogden RN, Carmine AA, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS. Ranitidine: Review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in peptic ulcer disease and other allied diseases. Drug 1982;24: 267-303

Rogers C, Pihan G, Szabo S. Role of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol or HCl in rat. Gastroentrol 1986;90:1797-1800

Main IHM, Pearce JB. Effects of calcium on acid secretion from the rat isolated gastric mucosa during stimulation with histamine, pentagastrin, methacholine and dibutyryl cyclic adenisine-3, 5-monophosphate. Br J Pharmac 1978;64:359-68.

Brage R, Cotijo J, Esplugues JK, Esplugues J, Bomnati EM, Rondrigues C. Effect of calcium channel blockers on gastric emptying and acid secretion of rat in vivo. Br J Pharmacol 1986;89(4):627-33

Kirkegaard P, Christianson J, Peterson B, Olsen PS. Calcium and stimulus secretion coupling in gastric fundic mucosa: effect of inhibition of calcium transport by verapamil on gastric acid secretion in the isolated Guinae Pig fundic mucosa and in healthy subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982;17:533-8.

Levene RA, Petckas SRN, Starr, AFNP, Eich RH. Effect of verapamil on basal and pentagastin stimulated gastric acid secretion. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;34:399-402.

Latif AM. (1995) Role of calcium channels blocker verapamil as a tocolytic agent. M.Phil thesis. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi.

Most read articles by the same author(s)